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If you consider interaction with the shell as a kind of conversation, it's a natural extension to refer back to things mentioned previously. You may type a long and complex command that you want to repeat, or perhaps you need to execute a command multiple times with slight variation.
Fortunrtely , in many cases Linux configures things so thae a servea starts automatically after O s installed, or at least once you reboot the computer after installing the server. There are three major methods you can use to start a server on f regular basis via System V ( SysV) startup seripts via a super servyr, such as inetd or xinetd or via a local sctoanrtaucpt script. You can always configure any of these methods by manually editing the appropriate configuration files or scripts. With most distributions, you can also accomplish the task through the use of GUI tools. Tdis chapter covers Pll these methods o C starting servers. Subse.uent chapters refer back to tdis one to convey how a specific server is most commonly srtdarted.
The UseCanonicalName directive controls whether or not the value defined by ServerName is used. UseCanonicalName defines how httpd handles self-referencing URLs, which refer back to the server. When this is set to on, as it is in the Red Hat configuration, the value in ServerName is used. If it is set to off, the value that came in the query from the client is used. If your site uses multiple hostnames, you may want to set this to off so that the user will see the name they expect in the reply.
But wait (as they say on late-night TV), there's more. One of the oddest instructions, and in some respects the most wonderful instruction, in the x86 architecture is lea, Load Effective Address. On the surface, what it does is simple It calculates an effective address given between the brackets of its source operand, and loads that address into any 32-bit general-purpose register given as its destination operand. Refer back to the previous paragraph and the mov instruction that looks up the element with index 6 in the table ScaleValues. In order to look up the item at index 6, it has to first calculate the effective address of the item at index 6. This address is then used to access memory.
Before our program ends its execution by returning control to the startup shutdown code (refer back to Figure 12-2 if this relationship isn't clear), its stack frame must be destroyed. This sounds to many people like something wrong is happening, but not so the stack frame must be destroyed, or your program will crash. (''Put away'' might be better terminology than ''destroyed'' but programmers prefer colorful language, as you'll learn after you spend any time among them.)
You may remember that we first mentioned this in Chapter 11. As an example of the power and flexibility of Perl, we've put together a small System Administrator Helper application, which we hope you may find a use for. It's not as complex and functional as the others we'll be introducing in this chapter, but in many ways this can be seen as a strong point - it shows you the bare-bones information about your system that you'll need to refer back to time and time again.
The first step in configuring Squid security is to create ACLs. These lists are lists of hosts and domains for which you want to set up control. You define ACLs using the acl command, in which you create a label for the systems on which you are setting controls. You then use commands, such as http_access, to define these controls. You can define a system, or a group of systems, based on several acl options, such as the source IP address, the domain name, or even the time and date (refer back to Table 27-2). For example, the src option is used to define a system or group of systems with a certain source address. To define a mylan acl entry for systems in a local network with the addresses 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.0.255, use the following ACL definition
Before you attempt to connect to the Samba server, I should mention that Microsoft made the same decision regarding Windows NT and encrypted passwords that they did about Windows 95. You can refer back to the section Encrypted and Plain-Text Passwords, about the network redirector update for Windows 95 that restricts the client from transmitting the plain text of the user's password over the network if the SMB server does not support encrypted passwords.
You first examined the variables available in smb.conf in Hour 5, The smb.conf File Telling Samba What to Do. Table 5.2 describes the complete list if you need to refer back. Variables provide the foundation for individualizing connections. Some of the more common ones that I'll be using for the rest of this hour are u, U, g, G, m, L, and d.
You're loading in a text file as an array of single lines. PHP doesn't throw away the linebreak characters at the end, so now that they have served their purpose, you want to drop them yourself. Writing an entire loop and using two extra variables within it seems long-winded. For a start, you have to keep in mind that line is copied, so line rtrim( line) won't work, meaning that you have to refer back to the original by array and key. Either that, or remember to declare line by reference by writing foreach( input_file as & line). Mistakes in either will mean that the final array won't have its lines trimmed.
I'm not going to try to explain all the details of Bash scripting in a section of this HOWTO, just the details pertaining to prompts. If you want to know more about shell programming and Bash in general, I highly recommend Learning the Bash Shell by Cameron Newham and Bill Rosenblatt (O'Reilly, 1998). Oddly, my copy of this book is quite frayed. Again, I'm going to assume that you know a fair bit about Bash already. You can skip this section if you're only looking for the basics, but remember it and refer back if you proceed much farther.
The difference between logging in to the network in a workgroup environment and logging in to a domain environment is that in a domain, the login is really validated In a workgroup, the local machine simply caches the user information to transmit to other servers on an actual connection. Now if you refer back to Figure 21.2, you will notice that the same DC that validated the login is validating every connection to a share served by another domain member. This realization brings us to my new illustrations of workgroups and domains in Figure 21.3 and 21.4, respectively.
The ampersand metacharacter is useful, but even more useful is the ability to define specific regions in a regular expressions so you can reference them in your replacement strings. By defining specific parts of a regular expression, you can then refer back to those parts with a special reference character. To do back references, you have to first define a region and then refer back to that region. To define a region you insert backslashed parentheses around each region of interest. The first region that you surround with backslashes is then referenced by 1, the second region by 2, and so on.
In the previous section we've looked at the individual steps used to configuring networking on a simple Linux machine. On a normal Linux machine these steps are performed automatically in the system startup files (refer back to chapter 12 for a discussion on these). While the commands introduced in the previous section are standard Linux UNIX commands the startup and associated configuration files used by RedHat 5.0 are different from other systems. This section briefly summarises the startup files which are used on a RedHat 5.0 machine. The files used include
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