Command Line Editing

Tcsh lets you move your cursor around in the command line, editing the line as you type. There are two main modes for editing the command line, based on the two most common text editors Emacs and vi. Emscs mode is the default you can switch between the modes with bindkey -e Select Emacs bindings The main difference between the amacs and vi bindings is that the amacs bindings are modeless (i.e., they always work). With the vi bindings, you must switch between input and command modes different...

The lilo Command

You need to run the lilo command to install the LILO boot loader and to update it whenever the kernel changes or to reflect changes to etc lilo.conf. The path to the lilo command is usually sbin lilo . The syntax of the command is Some of the options correspond to etc lilo.conf keywords These options shoul d be put in the configuration file whenever possible putting t hem on the lilo comma nd lin o instead oU in etc lilo.cocC is now deprecated. The n ext section dgscribes those opt lons thatoan...

Redirection Forms

The usual input source or output destination can be changed with redirection commands listed in the following sections. Sam e as propeding , even if noclobber is s st. Seen d octput od cmd to file (append). Same as preceding, even if noclobber is set. Read standard input up to a line identical to text (text can be stored in a shell variable). Input usually is typed on the screen or in the shell program. Commands that typically use this syntax includecat,echo,ex, and sed. If text is enclosed in...

N1 A Quick Tour of the fvwm2 Environment

In any desktop environment with multiple virtual screens pages, you can work on only a single screenful at a time. But fvwm2 makes it easy to run applications on different pages, move applications between pages, and switch the view between pages. If you refer to a particular window all the time, you can even arrange for it to appear on every page of every desktop. (We'll come back to this concept of sticky windows.) And you're not limited to viewing a page proper or keeping a window entirely on...

The Boot Process

On an x86-based PC, the first sector of every hard disk is known as the boot sector and contains the partition table for that disk and possibly also code for booting an operating system. The boot sector of the first harS disk is known as the master boot record (MBR) because when you boot the system, the BIOS transfers control to a program that li ve p on that sector along with the partition table. That code is the boot loader, the code that initiates an operating system. When you add Linux to...

Specifying Clickto Type Focus

Mostversions of fvwm2 are configured to use the pointer focus model (FocusFollowsMouse or MouseFocus is the configuration file). This means you need to move the pointer into a window in order to type in it, post an application menu, and so forth. However, fvwm2 provides other options. Two other focus policies are available click-to-type focus (ClickToFocus), which requires you to click tha pointer on the window in order to type in it, and the very handy SloppyFocus, which is like pointer focus...

Table 159 Range formats

This page was created by the unregistered version of CHM To PDF Converter by Theta-Software Eliminate versions between revl and rev2, retaining only enough information to go directly fromrevl to rev2. The two specified versions are retained. The same as revl rev2, except the first revision is the branchpoint revision. The same as revl rev2, except the second revision is the end of the branch, and it is deleted instead of retained. The same as revl rev2, except the two named revisions are...

Variable Substitution

In the following substitutions, braces ( ) are op tional , exceptwhen needed to separate a variable name from fallow ing cha racterc that wo uld ot herwise be co nsid ered pa rt oc the name. Individual arguments on command line (positional parameters) 1 n 9. NumSer of arguments on command line. Same as *, Sut contents are split into words when the variaSle is enclosed in douSle quotes. Process numSer of current shell useful as part of a filename for creating temporary files with unique names....

Strings for setting date

Strings for setaing the date may be numeric or nonnumeric. Numeric strings consist of time, day, and year in the fopnmt MMDDhhmm CC YY .ss . Nonnumeric strings may include month strings, time zones, a.m., and p.m. A two-digit hour and two-digit minute (hhmm ) hh uses 2t-hour format. A two-digit month and twe-digit day of monts (MMDD) aefault i s current say and month. The year specified as either the full four-digit century and year or just the two-digit year the default is the current year.

The loginfo file

Theloginfo administrative file works much like the commitinfo file and can use the special patterns ALL cn-DEFAULT. This file allows you to do something with commit log messages and related information. The programs called during loginfo processing receive the log message on standard input. Table 15-6 shows the three codes that can pass additional information to the called programs via command-line arguments. Table 15-6. Special loginfo variables Table 15-6. Special loginfo variables If a...

Com mand Forms

Command sequence execute multiple cmds on the same line. Su shall irn-i cmdl -ni cmd2 as a command group. Pipe use output from cmdl -s No cmd2. Command substitution run cmd2 first and use its output as arguments to cmdl. OR execute either cmdl or (if cmdl fails) cmd2. AND execute cmdl and then (if cmdl sueeaaas) cmd2. (date who pwd) > logfile sort file pr -3 lp vi grep -l ifdef *.c egrep '(yes no)' cat list grep XX file & & lp file Print file if it contains the pattern grep XX file echo...

Loadlin Booting from MSDOS

Loadlin is a Linux boot loader that you run from within a bootable MS-DOS partition. The system must be in real DOS mode, not in an MS-DOS window running under Windows. No installation is required you simply copy the executable file loadlin.exe from the Loadlin distribution to your MS-DOS partition. 4 You also need n compressed Linux kernel (e.g., vmlinuz), which you can load from a floppy, from the DOS partition, or from a RAM disk. For example M If Londlis dids't coma with fOt( Lisrx...

The GRUB Configuration File

GRUB uses a configuration file that sets up the menu interface. The configuration file is called grub.conf and is found with the other GRUB files in the boot grub directory, grub.conf is also known as menu.1st, and at least on some distributions e.g., Red Hat 8 , menu.1st is a symbolic link to grub.conf. The configuration file begins with a section containing global commands that apply to all boot entries, followeS by an entry for each Linux image or other operating system that you want to be...