Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency
The following section defines a monitor named MonitorO. The VendorName and ModelName are for reference only and do not affect the way the system works. The optional DisplaySize specifies the height and width of the screen in millimeters, allowing X to calculate the DPI of the monitor. HorizSync and VertRefresh specify ranges of vertical refresh frequencies and horizontal sync frequencies for the monitor these values are available from the manufacturer. The dpms Option specifies the monitor is DPMS (page 1030) compliant (has built-in energy-saving features).
First, enter a suitable name and description for the new or edited scheme. For the hard disk, define a 'Standby Policy' for maximum performance or for energy saving. The 'Acoustic Policy' controls the noise level of the hard disk. Click 'Next' to enter the 'CPU' and 'Cooling Policy' dialog. 'CPU' comprises the options 'CPU Frequency Scaling' and 'Throttling'. Use these options to define if and to what extent the CPU frequency may be throttled. The 'Cooling Policy' determines the cooling method. Complete all settings for the scheme and click 'OK' to return to the start dialog (Figure 17.1 on the next page). In the start dialog, assign the custom scheme to one of the two operating modes. To activate your settings, exit this dialog with 'OK'.
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On the On AC Power tab of the Power Management Preferences window, you can optimize your computer's power usage. These options apply only if your computer is connected to the electric grid you don't need these options if your computer is on battery power. Under Actions, you can specify when your computer should be put to sleep. The default setting is Never, which makes sense if you netbook is plugged in. To be more energy efficient, you can set this to, for example, one hour, which will suspend your computer when you're away. The second set of options relate to the graphical display. By default, your display goes to sleep after 30 minutes of inactivity, which in most cases is reasonable. To continue working, press any key, and the display will wake up. You can also set the display brightness. By default, it's as bright as possible. If you don't like that, use the slide bar to diminish the brightness setting. If you want to be more energy efficient, select the Dim display when idle...
Because virtualization is such a fabulous and popular way to improve the efficiency of your servers, VMware landed the top spot in the Favorite Green Linux Product or Solution category. The PowerTOP tool for finding energy wasters on your systems also is popular and won an honorable mention at 16.3 . Although many readers earnestly consider energy consumption and environmental impacts in their data-center strategy, we were surprised to see the high number of responses like Hummer and I promote global warming . We wonder with concern, How much good science is necessary to convince us of the seriousness of our environmental challenges
Ubuntu Netbook Edition is a version of Ubuntu designed specifically for netbook computers. It is optimized for computing devices with small screens and limited resources (like the energy-saving processors and smaller hard disks common among netbooks). Ubuntu Netbook Edition sports a unique interface and features a collection of software applications particularly useful to on-the-go users.
This is by far the most common type of device, and accordingly there are several different devices to choose from, all known in X10 parlance as lamp modules. However, it should be noted that some lights cannot be attached to lamp modules at all. These include the fluorescent lighting strips found in most kitchens and their compact fluorescent lamp equivalents (often known as energy-saving bulbs) now making their appearances in homes around the country. To make matters worse, these bulbs can also introduce spikes on the power line that can turn off nearby X10 lights.2 This is also a simple zero-installation device but one that requires slightly more configuration. To install it, you plug it into an existing light socket and then reinsert the bulb (up to 150W) into its free end. Neither fluorescent lamps nor low-energy lamps should be used, though. The address is set by turning the lamp off and on again and then pressing the required house unit code on the controller three times, once a...
If Linux isn't running your disks in an optimal mode, you can use hdparm to adjust its settings. In some cases, you can apply driver-specific options to your ATA driver. Finally, one issue of disk performance doesn't relate to speed, but it is important to laptop users energy use. You can configure the disks to spin down when they haven't been accessed for some time, thereby saving energy. Normally, a computer's hard disks spin whenever the computer is turned on. This feature makes disk access swift, because there's no need to begin spinning the disk to access a file however, it consumes a fair amount of power. Therefore, as an energy-saving measure, spinning down a disk when it's not in use is sometimes desirable. Doing so is particularly helpful on laptop computers, on which a spinning hard disk can greatly reduce battery life. Therefore, hdparm supports the -S option to set this feature. Unfortunately, the encoding of this feature is rather odd, as outlined in Table 2.4. You can...
The primary storage device is a 4GB CompactFlash card, chosen for its low price, small size and energy efficiency compared to the equivalent mechanical device. All of these items are commodity goods that were bought off the shelf. Primarily used for cost and time reasons, there also is the added benefit that the community knowledge and support are outstanding.
By default, a PC is set for best performance, but you can adjust this scheme in favor of Powersave (for the least energy consumption) or Acoustic (for quiet operation). The fourth scheme, Presentation, is the same as Performance, but turns the screensaver off. You can add your own scheme or edit existing ones by clicking Edit Schemes.
From the small office to the mega-datacenter, ZT Systems provides dependable, energy efficient server and client solutions that maximize productivity and optimize your IT budget. An established manufacturer celebrating our 15th anniversary, ZT combines individualized attention to your requirements with the experience and scalability you demand. All ZT Systems are assembled and serviced in the USA.
Power management is an essential job on portable computers. At the core of power management is an understanding of how to effectively optimize energy consumption of each system component. This entails studying the different tasks that your system performs, and configuring each component to ensure that its performance is just right for the job.
Many types of embedded devices have different power requirements depending on their usage. For example, network routers need to have minimal energy consumption to avoid heating, especially when used under rugged conditions. Devices such as PDAs and cell phones need to consume less energy so that battery life is not cut short. This section explains the power management schemes available under Linux for embedded systems and the power management framework on Linux, which spans across the BSP, drivers, and application layers. But before that we discuss the nexus between hardware design and power management.
Your house and allowing the heat to rise1 can provide any reasonable savings on your bills. The downside of this excess heat is that it might get very uncomfortable to work on the machines in Node0 if they're in an enclosed space that is heating up by the second. Consequently, install only low-energy or fluorescent lights here to prevent it from heating up any further when you're working on it.
The Mini-ITX is a family of machines based around the 170 x170mm ITX motherboard. Within this specification, there are a number of different options with varying processors, graphics chips, and cooling methodologies. This includes many machines that are fanless, relying only on the heat sink for cooling. This makes them more energy efficient than their desktop counterparts and suitable for placing in more communal areas, such as the living room where they are often used as media players.
Having multiple servers to control your house is fine. But if they're all switched on all the time, your electricity bill will increase disproportionately to the benefit gained. This also doesn't consider the case where the various machines can't communicate because the master server is offline. Expect a larger than usual electricity bill.
Although you may not yet find preinstalled Linux too easily at your neighborhood computer superstore, our beloved OS is bubbling up in more scintillating ways, including in the recently released Zonbu PC. Zonbu is a mini, fanless Gentoo Linux-driven PC that, with its on-line storage (sans hard drive ), functions with a computing as a service ethos. In addition, Zonbu is one of the few PCs that markets its green street cred , aiming to provide us concerned citizens with a means to reduce our energy consumption and thus our impact on the environment.
-S timeout This option sets an energy-saving option the time a drive will wait without any accesses before it enters a low-power state. It takes a few seconds for a drive to recover from such a state, so many desktops leave timeout at 0, which disables this feature. On laptop computers, though, you may want to set timeout to something else. Values between 1 and 240 are multiples of 5 seconds (for instance, 10 means a 50-second delay) 241-251 mean 1-11 units of 30 minutes 252 is a 21-minute timeout 2 53 is a drive-specific timeout and 2 55 is a 21-minute and 15-second timeout.
Frama-C (http frama-c.cea.fr ) is an open-source toolbox combining several existing static analysis techniques and applying them to the C language. It was developed and used by the Research Centre of CEA (French Nuclear Energy Agency) during the European OPENTC FP6 1ST project (http www.opentc.net ) to analyze parts of the Xen hypervisor. Its strength resides in a memory model that is well adapted to embedded code. It currently combines results obtained through abstract interpretation and Hoare Logics techniques. Few of these tools, apart from Coverity, have analyzed general-purpose
Caveat is a purely static analysis tool for the C language, devoted to embedded applications. Caveat was developed by the Research Centre of CEA (French Nuclear Energy Agency). It contains a predicates language, a VC generator, and a proof tool to discharge them. For each function, the tool computes a weakest precondition based on some pre- and post-conditions. The advantage of the Hoare method is to give an exact result of the possibility of such errors occurring. The drawback is that it is sometimes necessary to provide loop invariants as well as hypotheses and additional information manually for trying to prove the presence or absence of errors. This makes the process interactive but allows you to understand the errors origins. Caveat is used by Airbus Industries.
ThePower Control modules configure the energy-saving and battery settings for your system. The Energy module applies to all systems that have a monitor with energy-saving capabilities the remaining modules apply to laptop) or other battery-powered systems using the Linux Advanced Power Management (APM) or Advanced Configurati on and Power Interface (ACPI) features.
Tippett chose Linux on Mac for many reasons. There's the ability to run multiple operating systems, including Linux, OS X and Windows , says Darling, and he continues, The systems are fast That makes for more productive artists. The hardware is quiet and energy-efficient. It's cost-effective, with a good cost per rendermark a renderfarm performance benchmark . It's standardized hardware. And, there's a good support plan. Although the majority of our workstations run Linux, we have a handful of other systems running to support specific software. We use the ability to boot in to other operating systems, Industry leading 4P x86 computing to boost performance and power efficiency with Dual or Quad-Core AMD Opteron Processors Quad-Core Ready - increase capacity without altering datacenter infrastructure Best performance per-watt with energy-efficient DDR2 Optimized system performance with Direct Connect Architecture
Power Management If you are using a laptop, you can use the Power Management settings to create energy-saving schemes. On a server that is always AC powered, it does not make sense to use this option. You would always want it set to the Performance scheme, which makes sure your server is performing in the most optimal way. In the Other Settings drop-down list, one option, however, is useful for servers the ACPU Buttons option. This option allows you to set the default behavior when a certain button is clicked on your server. For servers, only the Power Button option makes sense by default, clicking the power button on the server will shut down the server gracefully. Other options are available as well, as shown in Figure 3-9 you may want to consider setting the default action for clicking the power button on your server to something less interrupting than shutting down the complete system. For example, it is a good choice just to have your server ignore the power button being pressed...
Cray Inc., progeny of the storied Cray Research, recently released its XT5 family of Linux-based supercomputers. Cray says the XT5's massively parallel processor (MPP) system includes a new eight-socket compute blade that quadruples local memory capacity, doubles processor density and improves energy efficiency. Other features include single-fan vertical cooling, compute blades designed for optimal airflow and CPU configurations up to 192 processor sockets or 768 CPU cores. To improve scalability, the Cray XT5 family also includes the industry's first integrated hybrid supercomputer, the Cray XT5h system. The XT5h integrates multiple processor architectures including vector processors, GPUs, accelerators and FPGAs with a complete software development environment into a single system supporting diverse work flows. www.cray.com At Supercomputing 2007, Appro unveiled its forthcoming Xtreme-X Supercomputer Series, a product line based on scalable clusters that provide cost-effectiveness,...
Armand Puccetti is a research engineer and project manager at CEA-LIST (a department of the French Nuclear Energy Agency, http www-list.cea.fr) where he is working in the Software Safety Laboratory. He is involved in several European research projects belonging to the MEDEA+, EUCLID, ESSI, and FP6 programs. His research interests include formal methods for software and hardware description languages, semantics of programming languages, theorem provers, compilers, and event-based simulation techniques. Before moving to CEA in 2000, he was employed as a project manager at C-S (Communications & Systems, http www.c-s.fr ), a privately owned software house. At C-S he contributed to numerous software development and applied research projects, ranging from CASE tools and compiler development to military simulation tools and methods (http escadre.cad.etca .fr ESCADRE) and consultancy.
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