On both desktop and server computers Linux has become a formidable operating system across a variety of business applications. Today, large enterprises can deploy thousands of systems using Linux distributions from companies such as Red Hat, Inc. and Novell, Inc. Small businesses can put together the mixture of office and Internet services they need to keep their costs down. What you can become with Linux Just because Linux is free, it doesn't mean that you can't make any money from it. There are small businesses that use Linux for all their office and Web software needs. Linux enterprise software is used to drive thousands of workstations and servers in many major corporations. If you are interested in using Linux as a profession, you can get training and certification to become a skilled participant in the open source revolution.
Currently, Red Hat provides several commercial products, known as Red Hat Enterprise Linux. These include the Red Hat Enterprise Advanced Server for intensive enterprise-level tasks Red Hat Enterprise ES, which is a version of Linux designed for small businesses and networks and Red Hat Enterprise Workstation. Red Hat also maintains for its customers the Red Hat Network, which provides automatic updating of the operating system and software packages on your system. Specialized products include the Stronghold secure Web server, versions of Linux tailored for IBM- and Itanium-based servers, and GNUPro development tools (www.redhat.com software gnupro).
Although Fedora Core may not be right for everyone, Fedora Core is still great for students, home users, most small businesses, and anyonejust wanting to try out Red Hat Linux technology. Larger businesses should seriously consider the implications to support, training, and future upgrade paths before choosmg whether to go the Fedora route or sgn on with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Many individuals and even some small businesses that need to connect to the Internet still do so using modems and telephone lines. The modem connects to a serial port (COM1, COM2, and so on) on your computer and then into a telephone jack. Your computer dials a modem at your Internet service provider or business that has a connection to the Internet.
Because of the way addresses are segmented between classes A, B, C, and reserved and because of the problem with liberal policies on IP address assignment early in the Internet's life, we're quickly running out of available IP addresses. Between every new movie having a new IP address for its domain name and network connectivity becoming cheap enough for small businesses, it is predicted that we will run out of IP addresses not too long after the year 2000.
A home-based business might have a single IP address, requiring LAN Network Address Translation. However, businesses often lease several publicly registered IP addresses or an entire network address block. Public addresses are usually assigned to a business's public servers. With public IP addresses, outgoing connections are forwarded and incoming connections are routed normally. A local subnet can be defined to create a local, public DMZ.
If hackers were alerted to an unsecure server, they could capture packets going in and out of the server to gain the data they sought. For example, if an e-commerce server does not use any type of network encryption for transactions, there is a great deal of data to be gained by a hacker. Unfortunately, many small companies or entrepreneurs set up their own Web servers, unaware of potential security problems, and set up simple scripts to process payment forms. Although the transaction takes place, it takes place in an unsecured manner. Every packet may contain valuable information that is very easy to observe over the wire. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is ideal for implementing secure e-commerce transactions.
As far as Ubuntu and Kubuntu desktop systems go, you will probably find yourself opening up some ports on a desktop installation as you use your system over time, and a netfilter iptables firewall introduces very little overhead on a desktop system, so I suggest that you always install at least a simple firewall. This way, if you subsequently increase the exposure of your system by opening ports, the firewall will already be in place. You may want to revisit your initial firewall implementation in the future, but you will at least have some protection even if you neglect firewalling in your excitement to make some new service available from your Ubuntu or Kubuntu system. Installing a simple firewall by default is also a good idea if you are setting up systems for friends, relatives, or small businesses where you may not always have complete control over what they add to or activate on their systems.
Ubuntu Linux is a Linux distribution founded in 2004. Originally focused on the needs of desktop and laptop users, Ubuntu has branched out since then, and now also offers distributions focused on the needs of commercial users with its Ubuntu Server distribution, Ubuntu JeOS for virtualization platforms, and Ubuntu Mobile for mobile and embedded devices such as smart phones, Internet tablets, and so on. All of these flavors of Ubuntu Linux are products of the Ubuntu project sponsored by Canonical, Ltd. (www. canonical.com), a company founded by Mark Shuttleworth, a successful South African entrepreneur, long-time Debian Linux developer, and general open source advocate. Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux distribution (more about that later in this chapter) that uses a graphical user interface known as GNOME as its desktop environment. (GNOME is discussed in detail in Chapter 5, Using the GNOME Desktop. ) Sister projects (officially known as Ubuntu Editions ) to Desktop Ubuntu include
Edgar Danielyan (CCNA) is a self-employed developer specializing in GCC, X Window, Tcl Tk, logic programming, Internet security, and TCP IP as well as having with BSD, SVR4.2, FreeBSD, SCO, Solaris, and UnixWare. He has a diploma in company law from the British Institute of Legal Executives as well as a paralegal certificate from the University of Southern Colorado. He is currently working as the Network Administrator and Manager of a top-level Armenian domain. He has also worked for the United Nations, the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Armenia, and Armenian national telephone companies and financial institutions. Edgar speaks four languages, and is a member of ACM, IEEE CS, USENIX, CIPS, ISOC, and IPG.
On both desktop and server computers Linux has become a formidable operating system across a variety of business applications. Today, large enterprises can deploy thousands of systems using Linux distributions from companies such as Red Hat, Inc. and Novell, Inc. Small businesses can put together the mixture of office and Internet services they need to keep their costs down.
Some people say South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth is a very lucky man. Others say he's an astute businessman and talented software engineer. But whichever way you look at it, there's no denying that he has twice helped steer the course of technological development throughout the world.
Some people simply grow into the DBA position by doing DBA tasks until someday someone says You're a DBA. This is more common in small environments than in larger shops, but it does happen. It may be an entrepreneur implementing his own idea. In that case he is more likely to view the database as a means to an end rather than to get caught up in the technology. Others may be computer operators or even non-technical people making a move to being a DBA as a way to break into IT. This may be something they wanted and have lobbied for or it may be forced on them because of a vacancy. It is difficult to tell how they will view the DBA position, but they will likely be more influenced by their mentors and training material than by a history of practical experience.
In addition to space exploration and a less-impressive jaunt to Antarctica, Shuttleworth played an active role as both a philanthropist and a venture capitalist. In 2001, Shuttleworth founded the Shuttleworth Foundation (TSF)a nonprofit organization based in South Africa. The foundation was chartered to fund, develop, and drive social innovation in the field of education. Of course, the means by which TSF attempts to achieve these goals frequently involved free software. Through these projects, the organization has been one of the most visible proponents of free and Open Source software in South Africa and even the world. In the venture capital area, Shuttleworth worked to foster research, development, and entrepreneurship in South Africa with strategic injections of cash into start-ups through a new venture capital firm called HBDan acronym that stood for Here Be Dragons. During this period, Shuttleworth was busy brainstorming his next big
Mark Shuttleworth is an African entrepreneur with a love for technology, innovation, change and space flight. Shuttleworth studied finance and information technology at the University of Cape Town and went on to found Thawte, a company specialising in digital certificates and cryptography. He sold Thawte to the U.S. company VeriSign in 1999 and founded HBD Venture Capital and the Shuttleworth Foundation. He moved to London in 2001 and began preparing for the First African in Space mission, training in Star City, Russia and Khazakstan. In April 2002, he became a space traveller as a member of the cosmonaut crew of Soyuz Mission TM34 to the International Space Station. In early 2004, he founded the Ubuntu project, which aims to produce a free, high-quality, user friendly OS available for everybody.
Queries according to the DNS network protocols. Most servers are authoritative for some zones and perform a caching function for all other DNS information. Most DNS servers, however, are authoritative for just a few zones, but larger servers are authoritative for tens of thousands of zones. By breaking the DNS into smaller zones and then those zones into domains, the load on any one machine is lightened. This also improves the reliability of the Internet by not requiring one server or group of servers to have all the information. Because this is a hierarchical configuration, the enterprise organization can establish a DNS server to control access to the organizational network. This can be done on a Linux server by enabling a specific piece of software. Small businesses can use this software to allow users to connect to the Internet, or large organizations can use it to establish domains and eventually a DNS zone server of their own. Creating, using, and providing a DNS server allows...
In April 2004, a South African entrepreneur by the name of Mark Shuttleworth envisioned a new type of operating system. Shuttleworth made his fortune early on in life when he founded a certificate authority and Internet security company called Thawte. Through his work, Thawte became the second-largest certificate authority on the Web behind VeriSign. VeriSign, seeing a great deal of potential in Thawte's open source roots, bought the company in 1999 for a stock purchase worth 575 million.
A The Internet was designed originally as a symmetrical system. That means the upstream and downstream speeds should be the same. That's the kind of Internet connectivity we find in universities and inside large companies. But it's not what the telephone and cable companies provide to our homes and small businesses. What we get is asymmetrical much higher downstream than upstream. The reasons are not necessarily bad ones. Most of us consume far more data than we produce. This is especially true when we download large graphical files, watch a YouTube video or listen to the live stream of a radio station over the Net. The carriers have optimized their systems for asymmetries between production and consumption.
South African businessman, Internet entrepreneur, and long-time Debian advocate, Mark Shuttleworth sponsors Ubuntu Linux through his organization Canonical Limited (www.canon-ical.com). Some of the best and brightest open source developers (many originally from the Debian project) are on Canonical's team for producing Ubuntu. The organization's commitment to free distribution and rapid development has attracted a large and active user and development community for Ubuntu.
I've been doing side work for years, and recently, I've become voluntarily self-employed. Like most small and even large companies, one of my biggest problems is tracking who owes me money and whom I need to pay. And, I kind of want to know whether I'm actually making a living. This is where a good accounting program becomes essential.
Of course, what you're going to need on your desktop usually is not the same as what you'd need on a work machine. Nevertheless, being a small-business owner, I tend to pick my software with an eye toward openness of data, migratability, interoperability and room for growth. In other words, I want to be able to get at my data from a number of programs, not only the one with which I created it. I want to be able to migrate painlessly to another software package should my requirements grow or change enough that I need to change my applications of choice. I want the programs I use to be able to talk to each other and to other programs out in the broader world. For example, if I write a short story and send it to a friend to proofread and mark up, I want her to be able to read what I send, and I want to be able to read her annotations in red text when she sends it back. I also want my software to be able to do more than I need right now, because if my needs grow, it's less bothersome to...
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AD How did you get started with computers SM-P I've been trying to think about this for quite some time. I think I got my first computer I'm pretty sure it was an 8086 the first x86 processor ever. After that, almost every single PC there was, I've played with it. When I was around 12, I started really taking them apart and then building them. I figured out that you could go buy parts and build your own PC, so I started my own business servicing people down the street and selling them PCs. AD So, you were an entrepreneur early on SM-P Yeah.
The result is a technology known as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). DSL has been available in some areas since 1998, if not earlier, but only in late 1999 and 2000 has the technology begun to take off. It seems likely that DSL will be one of the major methods of providing high-speed Internet access to homes and small businesses for the first few years of the 21st century. In 2000, its main competitor is Internet access through cable TV systems. I describe this alternative later in this chapter, in the section Cable Modems.
In this network, the local mail server (mail.example.com) has a direct connection to the Internet and can send and receive mail like any other mail server. It serves mail to a series of local mail clients using POP or IMAP, and it can relay mail from these clients. In addition to these conventional roles, though, mail.example.com pulls mail from two ISPs' mail servers using pull protocols and merges that mail into the local mail stream. This configuration, or a subset of it, is most useful for individuals and small businesses that use an ISP for receipt of some or all of their external mail. You can inject mail into a local queue for reading with mail readers running on the mail server itself, omitting the local mail client computers in Figure 25.3 or you can use the full local network as depicted in the figure. You can add or delete external mail servers, accept or not accept direct incoming SMTP connections from the Internet, send outgoing SMTP mail directly or via one of the ISP's...
The Game of Big Bux works the same way. Look back to Figure 1-1 and note that in the Start a Business detour, there is an instruction reading ''Add 850,000 to checking account.'' The checking account is one of several different kinds of storage in the Game of Big Bux, and money values are a type of data. It's no different conceptually from an instruction in the Game of Assembly Language reading add 5 to Register A.AnADD instruction in the code alters a data value stored in a cubbyhole named Register A.
Opening it up, Xara Xtreme has two very obvious good points it's well laid out, and it's fast. As I noted before, I do most of the draft-phase of my illustration work on my laptop in a coffee shop (when you run your own business, you don't actually meet a lot of people unless you make it a point to go somewhere). Laptops make it possible to do a day's work without setting foot in the office, depending on the day Unfortunately, a proper graphics laptop still will cost you your grandmother's dentures recapped with diamonds, so my mobile rig is a bit more modest. As such, I care about speed. Programs that are bloated, overcomplicated or poorly engineered don't last long on my hard drive unless there is no other tool available. Xara Is well engineered and handles big documents without lagging, particularly compared to Adobe Illustrator or Inkscape. Of course, It is possible to overload It eventually, one meets the end of one's RAM but you have to work at It.
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