Fedora 11 Red Hat Enterprise

Using the Metacity window manager

The Metacity window manager seems to have been chosen as the default window manager for GNOME because of its simplicity. The creator of Metacity refers to it as a boring window manager for the adult in you then goes on to compare other window managers to colorful, sugary cereal while Metacity is characterized as Cheerios. There really isn't much you can do with Metacity (except get your work done efficiently). Assigning new themes to Metacity and changing colors and window decorations is done...

Changing GNOME preferences

There are many ways to change the behavior, look, and feel of your GNOME desktop. Most GNOME preferences can be modified from windows you can launch from the System menu (click Preferences to see features to change). Unlike earlier versions of GNOME for Fedora and Red Hat Linux, boundaries between preferences relating to the window manager (Metacity), file manager (Nautilus), and the GNOME desktop itself have been blurred. Preferences for all of these features are available from the Preferences...

Using graphical administration tools

Administrators Toolbox Red

The trend over the past few versions of Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux has been to steer clear of the massive administrative interfaces (such as linuxconf and Webmin) and instead to offer graphical windows that perform individual administrative tasks. Instead of sharing one monolithic interface, they share common menus. Individual graphical windows for configuring a network, adding users, or setting up printers can be launched from those menus. There may be times when your desktop (and...

Partitioning your disks

The hard disk (or disks) on your computer provides the permanent storage area for your data files, applications programs, and the operating system (such as Fedora or RHEL). Partitioning is the act of dividing a disk into logical areas that can be worked with separately. There are several reasons you may want to do partitioning Multiple operating systems If you install Fedora or RHEL on a PC that already has a Windows operating system, you may want to keep both operating systems on the computer....

Converting audio files with SoX

If you have a sound file in one format, but you want it to be in another format, Linux offers some conversion tools you can use to convert the file. The sox utility can translate to and from any of the audio formats listed in Table 8-1. Table 8-1 Sound Formats Supported by the sox Utility Table 8-1 Sound Formats Supported by the sox Utility 8SVX Amiga musical instrument description format. Apple IIc IIgs and SGI AIFf files. May require a separate archiver to work with these files. Sun...

Adding a hard disk

Adding a new hard disk to your computer so that it can be used by Linux requires a combination of steps described in previous sections. The general steps are as follows 1. Install the hard disk hardware. 2. Identify the partitions on the new hard disk. 3. Create the file systems on the new hard disk. The easiest way to add a hard disk to Linux is to have the entire hard disk devoted to a single Linux partition. You can have multiple partitions of different sizes, however, and assign them each...

Using Scanners Driven by SANE

Software for using a scanner with Linux is being driven by an effort called Scanner Access Now Easy (SANE). This effort hopes to standardize how device drivers for equipment such as scanners, digital still cameras, and digital video cameras are created, as well as help simplify the interfaces for applications that use those devices. SANE is now included with the Fedora and RHEL distributions. The sane-backends, sane-frontends, xsane, and xsane-gimp packages are all on the DVD that comes with...

Network Services Reference

Table B-1 provides details on specific network services. Table B-1 Quick Reference for Network Services etc vsftpd vsftpd.conf etc vsltpd user_list etc init.d xinetd tc xinetd,d gssftp usr sbin xinetd usr kerberos sbin ftpd etc init.d smb tc init.d winbind list sbin rpc. n sd usr s bin nmbd usr sbin winbindd etc init.d nfs tc init.d n iock usr sbin rpc.n sd usr sbin rpc.mountd sbin rpc statd etc init.d x i netd etc xinetd.d telnet usr sbin xinetd usr sbin in.telnetd etc init.d xinetd etc...

Building and installing from source code

If no binary version of the package that you want is available, or if you just want to tailor a package to your needs, you can always install the package from source code. To begin, you can get the source code (SRPM) version of any binary packages in Fedora from the Fedora software repository (see Appendix A for details). You can modify the source code and rebuild it to suit your needs. Software packages that are not available in RPM format are typically available in the form of a tarball (a...

Performing a kickstart installation

If you are installing Fedora or RHEL on multiple computers, you can save yourself some trouble by preconfiguring the answers to questions asked during installation. The method of automating the installation process is referred to as a kickstart installation. A kickstart file can not only be used to drive a regular Fedora installation, but can also be used to create Fedora Live CDs. CAUTION Based on the information you provide in your ks.cfg file, kickstart will silently go through and install...

Configuring basic sendmail settings sendmailmc

Much of the configuration of your sendmail server comes from information in your etc mail sendmail.mc file. Because this file sets sendmail default values that can be used in most cases, you may not have to do much with sendmail.mc. However, I recommend you step through this section so you understand how your mail server is configured. Changes you make to the sendmail.mc file do not immediately take effect. First you must compile the sendmail.mc settings to generate the etc mail sendmail.cf...

Modifying user accounts with usermod

The usermod command is similar to the useradd command and even shares some of the same options. However, instead of adding new accounts, it enables you to change various details of existing accounts. When invoking the usermod command, you must provide account details to change followed by the login name of the account. Table 11-3 lists the available options for the usermod command. Table 11-3 usermod Options for Changing Existing Accounts Table 11-3 usermod Options for Changing Existing...

Checking wireless settings

You can use the iwlist and iwconfig commands to check your wireless settings. The iwconfig command provides a quick overview of your wireless settings, while the iwlist command shows you information about parameters that you specify. Use the iwconfig command, along with the name of the wireless LAN interface, to see information about that interface. For example, if the wireless interface were ethl, you could type the following eth0 IEEE 802.11-DS ESSID Homelan Nickname pine Mode Ad-Hoc...

Adding more games from Fedora repository

The Fedora repository contains more than the games listed in the preceding tables. Because the Fedora Games SIG is an on-going initiative, you can check the Fedora Project Web site to see if more games than are shown here are available in Fedora by opening the PackageKit window and selecting Games. You can install each game from the Fedora DVD included with this book. Most, but not all, of the games available in the Fedora repository are included on the DVD. To check games packages that might...

Other Word Processors

There are many different word processors available from the Fedora software repository. Popular lightweight word processors such as AbiWord and KOffice (which is part of the KDE desktop) can now be easily installed with a single yum command from the Fedora repository. As for commercial offerings, there is StarOffice from Sun Microsystems and TextMaker. The StarOffice productivity suite (http www.sun.com staroffice) from Sun Microsystems, Inc. is a commercial product that runs on Linux, UNIX,...

Getting Familiar with the Desktop

The term desktop refers to the presentation of windows, menus, panels, icons, and other graphical elements on your computer screen. Originally, computer systems such as Linux operated purely in text mode no mouse, no colors, just commands typed on the screen. Desktops provide a more intuitive way of using your computer. As with most things in Linux, the desktop is built from a set of interchangeable building blocks. The building blocks of your desktop, to use a car analogy, are The X Window...

Configuring Konqueror and Dolphin options

You can change many of the visual attributes of the Konqueror window. You can select which menu bars and toolbars appear. You can have any of the following bars appear on the Konqueror window Menu bar, Toolbar, Extra Toolbar, Location Toolbar, Bookmark Toolbar. Select Settings Toolbar and then click the menu item for the bar you want to have appear (or not appear). The bar appears when the checkmark is shown next to it. You can modify a variety of options for Konqueror by choosing Settings...

Running Microsoft Windows applications in Linux

There are several promising approaches you can take to get your Windows applications to work during a running Linux session. Here are a few of them WINE The WINE project (http www.winehq.org) has been making great strides in getting applications that were created for Microsoft Windows to run in Linux and other operating systems. WINE is not really an emulator because it doesn't emulate the entire Windows operating system. Instead, because it implements Win32 application programming interfaces...

Protecting against distributed DOS attacks

DDOS attacks are much harder to initiate and nearly impossible to stop. A DDOS attack begins with the penetration of hundreds or even thousands of weakly secured machines. These machines can then be directed to attack a single host based on the whims of the attacker. With the advent of DSL and cable modem, millions of people are enjoying Internet access with virtually no speed restrictions. In their rush to get online, many of those people neglect to implement even the most basic security....

Using textbased Web browsers

If you become a Linux administrator or power user, over time you will inevitably find yourself working on a computer from a remote login or where there is no desktop GUI available. At some point while you are in that state, you will probably want to check an HTML file or a Web page. To solve the problem, Fedora and RHEL include several text-based Web browsers. With text-based Web browsers, any HTML file available from the Web, your local file system, or a computer where you're remotely logged...

Resetting a users password

One common (if not the most common) problem that your users will encounter is the inability to log in because They have the Caps Lock key on. They have forgotten the password. If the Caps Lock key is not on, then you probably need to reset the user's password. You can't look up the password because Linux stores hashed forms of passwords. Instead, use the passwd command to assign a new password to the user's account. Give the user the new password (preferably in person), but then set the...

Playing and managing music with Rhythmbox

Rhythmbox is a tool for gathering, managing, and playing your music collection from one application. It lets you import music (from a CD, URL, or folder), and then select and sort your music by album, artist, title, or other variables from the Rhythmbox window. Rhythmbox also lets you play Internet radio stations. If you are unable to play CDs on your CD-ROM drive, here are a few things you can check to correct the problem Verify that your sound card is installed and working properly (see...

Monitoring power usage on laptop computers

To effectively use a laptop computer, you need to be able to monitor and manage the laptop's power usage. Using tools provided in Fedora or RHEL, you can configure your laptop to Notify you when the battery is low. Notify you when the battery is fully charged. Show when the laptop is plugged in. Suspend the current session. Fedora and RHEL offer two facilities that do power management APM and ACPI. Advanced Power Management (APM) APM can be used to monitor the battery of your notebook and...

Listening to Music in Linux

Good-quality sound hardware is considered a necessity for today's desktop and laptop computer systems. Whether playing songs downloaded from the Internet, sound tracks to digital movies, or audio from a TV card, any user-friendly operating system has to support a healthy list of sound hardware and audio applications. Most popular sound devices for the PC, whether on separate cards or built into your computer's motherboard, will be automatically detected when a Fedora or RHEL system boots up....

Installing a guest operating system

With Fedora up and running with the Xen kernel, the next step is to install a guest operating system to run in Xen on your Fedora system. You do this using the virt-manager utility. (If you prefer to create a Xen guest with a command-line utility, try xenguest-install.) For demonstration purposes, the procedure below shows how to install a Fedora 7 instance as a virtual guest operating system on Fedora 11. Before you start, you need a network connection and the location of an online Fedora 7...

Setting your own environment variables

Environment variables can provide a handy way of storing bits of information that you use often from the shell. You can create any variables that you want (avoiding those that are already in use) so that you can read in the values of those variables as you use the shell. (The bash man page lists variables already in use.) To set an environment variable temporarily, you can simply type a variable name and assign it to a value. Here is an example This example causes a long directory path to be...

Supplying initial bashrc and bashprofile files

By supplying your users with initial .bashrc and .bash_profile files, you give them a starting point from which they can further customize their shell environment. Moreover, you can be sure that files are created with the appropriate access permissions so as not to compromise system security without the user's knowledge. The .bash_profile script is run each time the user starts a new bash shell and, in turn, runs the .bashrc script. So, security is a concern. The .bash_profile file sets the...

Managing files with Dolphin and Konqueror File Managers

With KDE 4.2, the KDE desktop offers two file managers the new Dolphin File Manager and the existing Konqueror File Manager Browser. Dolphin is a streamlined file manager that is now used by default when you open a folder in KDE. Konqueror can handle a wide range of content from local files and folders to remote Web content. NOTE For further information on Dolphin, refer to the Dolphin File Manager home page The Konqueror File Manager Web browser helps elevate the KDE environment from just...

Quickstarting the Apache Web Server

If Apache wasn't installed during the Fedora installation, you can install it later from the DVD or CD that comes with this book. You will need the httpd package and optionally the httpd-manual package (named apache and apache-manual in earlier versions). Here's a quick way to get your Apache Web server going. From here, you'll want to customize it to match your needs and your environment (as described in the section that follows). 1. Make sure that Apache is installed by typing the following...

Using ssh scp and sftp without passwords

For machines that you use a great deal, it is often helpful to set them up so that you do not have to use a password to log in. The following procedure shows you how to do that. These steps will take you through setting up password-less authentication from one machine to another. In this example, the local user is named chester on a computer named hostl. The remote user is also chester on a computer named host2. 1. Log in to the local computer (in this example, I log in as chester to host1)....

Opening your firewall and SELinux for DHCP

The firewall on your DHCP server must be configured to allow access to UDP ports 67 and 68. The easiest way to do this is to select System Administration Firewall from the GNOME desktop. From the Firewall Configuration window that appears, enable the firewall, and then select Other Ports and add UDP ports 67 and 68. If you prefer to use iptables directly to change your firewall, you can add a new rule to iptables and then save the changes permanently. Type the following as root user iptables -I...

Redirecting logs to a loghost with rsyslogd

To redirect your computer's log files to another computer's rsyslogd, you must make some changes to your local rsyslogd's configuration file. The file that you need to work with is etc rsyslog.conf. If you are not already root, become root and then open the etc rsyslog.conf file in a text editor such as vi . You should see something similar to this http www.rsyslog.com troubleshoot for assistance ModLoad imuxsock.so provides support for local system logging ModLoad imklog.so provides kernel...

Using the Power Manager applet

If you are using the GNOME desktop, the GNOME Power Manager applet should automatically appear on your panel to keep track of the power levels of your battery (if a battery is present). The following procedure steps you through adding the monitor to your panel (if it is not already there) and configuring it to behave as you like. 1. Move the mouse pointer over the battery icon in the top panel. A tooltip should tell you whether or not your laptop is currently running on AC power and your...

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape was for years the most common medium used for backing up large amounts of computer data. Tapes provide a low-cost, convenient way to archive your files. Today's high-capacity tape drives can back up many gigabytes of data on an amazingly small tape, allowing vast amounts of information to be safely stored. Tapes are also easy to transport offsite so that data will be secure in case of fires, hurricanes, or other disasters. The primary disadvantage of magnetic tape is that it is a...

Creating vector graphic images with Inkscape

When you need to have maximum flexibility working with graphics and text, a vector graphic editor can let you deal with geometric elements (such as lines, curves, and boxes) instead of dots (as you do with image editors). As a result, you usually get cleaner edges on your fonts and graphics and the ability to bend and shape those elements as you like. Inkscape (http www.inkscape.org) is a popular vector graphics editor that is available with Fedora. With Inkscape, you have an application with...

Other Web servers available for Fedora and RHEL

Some other Web servers that can run on Fedora and other Red Hat Linux distributions are described in the following list, with URLs that provide more detailed information. lighttpd The lighttpd Web server (http www.lighttpd.net) is built for security, speed, compliance and flexibility. It is particularly optimized for high performance environments because it has a low memory footprint and balances cpu-load. Sites such as YouTube, Wikipedia, and meebo have used lighttpd for some specialty Web...

Restarting your Web server

By now you've probably noticed that your Web server requires you to enter your certificate password every time it is started. This is to prevent someone from breaking into your server and stealing your private key. Should this happen, you are safe in the knowledge that the private key is a jumbled mess. The cracker will not be able to make use of it. Without such protection, a cracker could get your private key and easily masquerade as you, appearing to be legitimate in all cases. If you just...

Analyzing Webserver traffic

The webalizer package can take Apache log files and produce usage reports for your server. Those reports are created in HTML format so you can display the information graphically. Information is produced in both table and graph form. To use the webalizer command, the webalizer package must be installed (yum install webalizer). You can run webalizer with no options and have it take the values in the etc webalizer.conf files to get the information it needs. As an alternative, you can use...

Return to Castle Wolfenstein

Mixing World War II action with creatures conjured up by Nazi scientists, you battle with the Allies to destroy the Third Reich. Return to Castle Wolfenstein is based on the Quake III Arena engine. The game offers single-player mode as well as team-based multiplayer mode. If you purchase Return to Castle Wolfenstein for Linux, you actually get the Windows version with an extra Linux installer. If you already have the Windows version, you can download the Linux installer and follow some...

Backing up files locally

The first example shows a simple backup of a user's personal files. Here I'm copying the home chris directory (including all its files and subdirectories) to another directory on the local computer. That directory ( mnt backup homes) could be on a separate partition (see Chapter 2 for creating separate partitions), hard disk (see Chapter 10 to add a hard disk), or a remote NFS file system (see Chapter 18 to mount an NFS file system) rsync -av home chris mnt backup homes NOTE Notice that there's...

Accessing an LDAP Address Book from Thunderbird

With your LDAP address book configured and running, you should be able to use it to get email addresses from any e-mail client that supports LDAP directories. Assuming your LDAP directory is up and running, the following example shows how to use Thunderbird (which is available with Fedora and RHEL distributions) to search your LDAP directory for e-mail addresses. 1. From Thunderbird, click the Address Book button. 2. From the Address Book window, select File New LDAP Directory. From the...

Adding Windows computers to your LAN

It is likely that you have other types of computers on your LAN in addition to those running Linux systems (at least for a few more years). If a DHCP server is available on your LAN (or if you have configured one yourself as described in Chapter 23), Windows and most other computer systems can simply start up and begin using the network. In cases where your network card is not properly detected, or you want to set static IP addresses, you need to do some extra configuration. If you are using...

Sharing Files with Bit Torrent

BitTorrent is a tool for distributing software content to a large number of clients over a network. What makes BitTorrent so unique is that, as you download a file to your computer, someone else can be downloading the same file from your computer. In that way, the server originally offering the file doesn't get hammered and a potentially unlimited number of people can get the file quickly. BitTorrent is an excellent tool for the free and open source software community. For example, when a new...