Fedora 7 Red Hat Enterprise

Running Microsoft Office on Linux Crossover

One of the primary concerns for new Linux users is what kind of access they will have to their Microsoft Office files, particularly Word files. The Linux operating system and many applications for it are designed to provide seamless access to MS Office files. The major Linux Office suites, including KOffice, OpenOffice, and StarOffice, all read and manage any Microsoft Office files. In addition, these office suites are fast approaching the same level of features and support for office tasks as...

Classless Interdomain Routing CIDR

Currently, the class-based organization of IP addresses is being replaced by the CIDR format. CIDR was designed for midsized networks, those between a class C and classes with numbers of hosts greater than 256 and smaller than 65,534. A class C network-based IP address using only one segment for hosts uses only one segment, an 8-bit integer, with a maximum value of 256. A class B network-based IP address uses two segments, which make up a 16-bit integer whose maximum value is 65,534. You can...

Linux as an IPv6 Router radvd

For a Linux system that operates as a router, you use the radvd Router ADVertisement Daemon to advertise addresses, specifying a network prefix in the etc radvd.conf file. The radvd daemon will detect router network address requests from hosts, known as router solicitations, and provide them with a network address using a router advertisement. These router advertisements will also be broadcast to provide the network address to any hosts that do not send in requests. For radvd to work, you will...

SysV Init initd Scripts

You can manage the startup and shutdown of server daemons with special service scripts located in the etc rc.d init.d directory. These scripts often have the same name as the service's program. For example, for the usr sbin httpd Web server program, the corresponding script is called etc rc.d init.d httpd. This script starts and stops the Web server. This method of using init.d service scripts to start servers is called SysV Init, after the method used in Unix System V. Some of the more...

Filters and Regular Expressions

Filters are commands that read data, perform operations on that data, and then send the results to the standard output. Filters generate different kinds of output, depending on their task. Some filters generate information only about the input, other filters output selected parts of the input, and still other filters output an entire version of the input, but in a modified way. Some filters are limited to one of these, while others have options that specify one or the other. You can think of a...

Creating File Systems mkfs mke2fs mkswap parted and fdisk

Linux provides a variety of tools for creating and managing file systems, letting you add new hard disk partitions, create CD images, and format floppies. To use a new hard drive, you will have to first partition it and then create a file system on it. You can use either parted or fdisk to partition your hard drive. To create the file system on the partitions, you use the mkfs command, which is a front end for various file system builders. For swap partitions, you use a special tool, mkswap,...

Kernel Configuration Tools

You can configure the kernel using one of several available configuration tools config, menuconfig, xconfig (qconf), and gconfig (gkc). You can also edit the configuration file directly. These tools perform the same configuration tasks but use different interfaces. The config tool is a simple configure script providing line-based prompts for different configuration options. The menuconfig tool provides a cursor-based menu, which you can still run from the command line. Menu entries exist for...

The Gnome Volume Manager

Managing DVD CD-ROMs, card readers, floppy disks, digital cameras, and other removable media is the task of the GNOME Volume Manager. This is a lower-level utility that remains transparent to the user, though how you treat removable media can be configured with the Drives and Removable Media preferences tool. The GNOME Volume Manager allows you not only to access removable media, but to access all your mounted file systems, remote and local, including any Windows shared directories accessible...

Photo Management Tools FSpot and digiKam

The F-Spot Photo Manager provides a simple and powerful way to manage, display, and import your photos and images (www.f-spot.org). Photos can be organized by different categories such as events, people, and places. You can perform standard display operations This site holds a massive amount of multimedia software for Linux, much under development sourceforge.net KDE supports an extensive set of multimedia software Many multimedia applications have been developed for GNOME Lists a wide range of...

GNU Privacy Guard

To protect messages that you send by e-mail, most Linux distributions provide GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) encryption and authentication (www.gnupg.org). GnuPG is GNU open source software that works much like Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption. It is the OpenPGP encryption and signing tool, and OpenPGP is the open source version of PGP. With GnuPG, you can both encrypt your messages and digitally sign them protecting the message and authenticating that it is from you. Currently, Evolution and...

Fedora Administration Tools

On Fedora, most administration tasks can be handled by a set of separate specialized administrative tools developed and supported by Red Hat Linux and Fedora, such as those for user management and display configuration. Many of these are GUI-based and will work on any X Window System environment, such as GNOME or KDE. To access the GUI-based Red Hat and Fedora tools, you log in as the root user to the GNOME desktop and select the System menu. System administrative tools are listed on the...

Network Talk and Messenger Clients VoIp Icq Irc Aim and Talk

You may, at times, want to communicate directly with other users on your network. You can do so with VoIP, Talk, ICQ, instant messenger, and IRC utilities, provided the other user is also logged in to a connected system at the same time (see Table 15-2). With Voice over the Internet Protocol applications, you can speak over Internet connections, talking as if on a telephone. The Talk utility operates like a two-way text messaging tool, enabling you to have a direct two-way conversation with...

Starting and Stopping the Web Server

On most systems, Apache is installed as a stand-alone server, continually running. As noted in Chapter 21, in the discussion of init scripts, your system automatically starts up the Web server daemon, invoking it whenever you start your system. A service script for the Web Directory-based configuration files an .htaccess file holds directives to control access to files within the directory in which it is located Directory for Apache Web server configuration files Apache Web server configuration...

File System Management

Files reside on physical storage devices such as hard drives, CD-ROMs, or floppy disks. The files on each storage device are organized into a file system. The storage devices on your Linux system are presented as a collection of file systems that you can manage. When you want to add a new storage device, you need to format it as a file system and then attach it to your Linux file structure. Hard drives can be divided into separate storage devices called partitions, each of which has its own...

Web Server Security SSL

Web server security deals with two different tasks protecting your Web server from unauthorized access, and providing security for transactions carried out between a Web browser client and your Web server. To protect your server from unauthorized access, you use a proxy server such as Squid. Squid is a GNU proxy server often used with Apache on Linux systems. (See Chapter 24 for a detailed explanation of the Squid server.) Apache itself has several modules that provide security capabilities....

Using Removable Devices and Media

Fedora now supports removable devices and media like digital cameras, PDAs, card readers, and even USB printers. These devices are handled automatically with an appropriate device interface set up on the fly when needed. Such hotplugged devices are identified, and where appropriate, their icons will appear in the file manager window. For example, when you connect a USB drive to your system, it will be detected and displayed as storage device with its own file system. If you copied any files to...

GNOME Graphics Tools

GNOME features several powerful and easy-to-use graphic tools. Some are installed with Red Hat Fedora, whereas you can download others, such as GView and gtKam, from www .gnomefiles.org. Also, many of the KDE tools work just as effectively in GNOME and are accessible from the GNOME desktop. The gThumb application is a thumbnail image viewer that lets you browse images using thumbnails, display them, and organize them into catalogs or easy reference. See sourceforge.net for more information....

Window System Graphic Programs

X Window System-based applications run directly on the underlying X Window System, which supports the more complex desktops like GNOME and KDE. These applications tend to be simpler, lacking the desktop functionality found in GNOME or KDE applications. Xpaint is a paint program, much like MacPaint. You can load graphics or photographs, and then create shapes, add text, and add colors. You can use brush tools with various sizes and colors. Xfig is a drawing program, and Xmorph enables you to...

GNOME Power Manager

The GNOME Power Manager is designed to take full advantage of the efficiency features available on both laptops and desktops. It supports tasks like reducing CPU frequency, dimming the display, shutting down unused hard drives, and automatic shutdown or suspension. See for a detailed description. The GNOME Power Manager is integrated with HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) and Dbus to detect hardware states and issue hardware notifications. Hardware notifications are issued using notification...

Web Servers Apache

Linux distributions provide several Web servers for use on your system. The primary Web server is Apache, which has almost become the standard Web server for Red Hat Linux and Fedora distributions. It is a very powerful, stable, and fairly easy-to-configure system. Other Web servers are also available, such as Tux. Tux is smaller, but very fast, and is very efficient at handling Web data that does not change. Red Hat and Fedora Linux provide default configurations for the Web servers, making...

Login Screen

If you want to change the login screen, you can use the Login Screen Setup window accessible from Login Screen entry in the Administration menu. This configures the GNOME Display Manager, which runs your login process. Here you can set the background image, icons to be displayed, the theme to use, users to list, and even the welcome message. Login screens can be configured for local or remote users. You can choose between a plain screen, a plain screen with face browser, or a themed screen. The...

Importing Public Keys

First, however, you will need to make sure that you have the signer's public key. The digital signature was encrypted with the software distributor's private key. That distributor is the signer. Once you have that signer's public key, you can check any data you receive from them. In the case of software repositories like Fedora, rpm.livna.org, or freshrpms.net, you will be asked to install their public key the first time you try to install any software from their site. Once the key is...

Running Windows Software on Linux Wine

Wine is a Windows compatibility layer that will allow you to run many Windows applications natively on Linux. Though you could run the Windows OS on it, the actual Windows operating system is not required. Windows applications will run as if they were Linux applications, able to access the entire Linux file system and use Linux-connected devices. Applications that are heavily driver dependent, like graphic intensive games, most likely will not run. Others, like new readers, that do not rely on...

The Samba smbconf Configuration File

You configure the Samba daemon using the smb.conf file located in the etc samba directory. The file is separated into two basic parts one for global options and the other for shared services. A shared service, also known as shares, can either be filespace services (used by clients as an extension of their native file systems) or printable services (used by clients to access print services on the host running the server). The filespace service is a directory to which clients are given access...

Port Forwarding Tunneling

If, for some reason, you can connect to a secure host only by going through an insecure host, ssh provides a feature called port forwarding. With port forwarding, you can secure the insecure segment of your connection. This involves simply specifying the port at which the insecure host is to connect to the secure one. This sets up a direct connection between the local host and the remote host, through the intermediary insecure host. Encrypted data is passed through directly. This process is...

Fedora Hats Mail

What is known now as the Mail utility was originally created for BSD Unix and called, simply, mail. Later versions of Unix System V adopted the BSD mail utility and renamed it mailx. Now, it is simply referred to as Mail. Mail functions as a de facto default mail client on Unix and Linux systems. All systems have the mail client called Mail, whereas they may not have other mail clients. To send a message with Mail, type mail along with the address of the person to whom you are sending the...

Name Based Virtual Hosting

With IP-based virtual hosting, you are limited to the number of IP addresses your system supports. With name-based virtual hosting, you can support any number of virtual hosts using no additional IP addresses. With only a single IP address for your machine, you can still support an unlimited number of virtual hosts. Such a capability is made possible by the HTTP 1.1 protocol, which lets a server identify the name by which it is being accessed. This method requires the client, the remote user,...

Dynamic Virtual Hosting

If you have implemented many virtual hosts that have the same configuration on your server, you can use a technique called dynamic virtual hosting to have these virtual hosts generated dynamically. The code for implementing your virtual hosts becomes much smaller, and as a result, your server accesses them faster. Adding yet more virtual hosts becomes a simple matter of creating appropriate directories and adding entries for them in the DNS server. To make dynamic virtual hosting work, the...

Web Server Acceleration Reverse Proxy Cache

Though Squid caches can enhance access by clients to a Web server, Squid can also reduce the load on a Web server. Web servers that become overwhelmed by requests can move their cachable pages to a Squid proxy server that can serve as a kind of alternate site, handling requests for those pages. In effect, the Web server becomes accelerated. Such a cache is known as a reverse proxy cache, focusing on the server instead of the client. A reverse proxy cache will intercept requests to a server,...

Creating Your Own Web Site

To create your own Web site, you need access to a Web server. Red Hat automatically installs the Apache Web server on its Linux systems. You can also rent Web page space on a remote server a service many ISPs provide, some for free. On Red Hat systems, the directory set up by your Apache Web server for your Web site pages is var httpd html. Other servers provide you with a directory for your home page. Place the Web pages you create in that directory. You place your home page here. You can make...

Desktop Link Files and URL Locations

On the KDE desktop, special files called link files are used to access a variety of elements, including Web sites, application programs, and even devices. You create a link file by right-clicking the desktop and then selecting Create New. From this menu, you choose the type of link file you want to create. The Link To Application entry is for launching applications. The Link To Location (URL) entry holds a URL address that you can use to access a Web or FTP site. The Link To Device submenu lets...

Pv6 and IPv4 Coexistence Methods

In the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, many networks will find the need to support both. Some will be connected to networks that use the contrary protocol, and others will have to connect through other network connections that use that protocol. There are several official IETF methods for providing IPv6 and IPv4 cooperation, which fall into three main categories Dual-stack Allows IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist on the same networks. Translation Enables IPv6 devices to communicate with IPv4 devices....

Displaying Files and Folders

You can view a directory's contents as icons or as a detailed list. In the spatial view, you select the different options from the View menu. In the Browser view, you use the pop-up menu located on the right side of the Location bar. The List view provides the name, permissions, size, date, owner, and group. In the View as List view, buttons are displayed for each field across the top of the main panel. You can use these buttons to sort the lists according to that field. For example, to sort...