Most of these USB options aren't present in standard 2.2.x kernels. You must use a 2.3.x or later kernel or apply patches to the 2.2.x kernel in order to use theseoptions. 2.2.x kernel patches are available from, and the latest kernels can be found at or most Linux archive FTP sites.

These kernel drivers aren't enough to get your scanner working, though; they're only enough to get programs talking to the scanner. As with printers, much of the real work of controlling the device rests with a separate program. In the case of scanners, this program is known as 19


SANE Software 1

Scanner Access Now Easy (SANE) is a set of protocols and programs that enable you to S

access a scanner's features under Linux. In many respects, SANE is analogous to Ghostscript for printers. The goal of the SANE project is to provide a uniform interface to all scanner hardware. This goal is similar in concept to that of the TWAIN interface in the Windows world. SANE differs from TWAIN, however, in that SANE separates the low-level drivers from the user interface. TWAIN tightly integrates the two, so all programs that use a scanner use the same interface. This fact makes SANE at least potentially more cross-platform than

TWAIN, and it allows for network scanning—using a scanner connected to one computer through software located on another computer.

Part IV

Figure 19.5 illustrates the relationship between the various hardware and software components in a SANE-driven scanning system. SANE's mediation means that you can change a scanner (and hence a SANE driver) at will, and continue to use your scanning software just as you had before the change.

Biblical Covenant

Figure 19.5

SANE presents a uniform face to applications that can use a scanner

Figure 19.5

SANE presents a uniform face to applications that can use a scanner

Because SANE is the component that most directly communicates with the scanner, it's here that you need to look for drivers. The SANE project includes support for most SCSI scanners, a handful of parallel-port scanners, and a growing number of USB scanners. You can find SANE drivers for some devices from third parties, but tracking them down can be difficult. In fact, your efforts might be in vain. In general, it's best to use a device whose drivers come with SANE.

Chapter 19

In addition to scanners, SANE includes early support for Video for Linux devices (see Chapter 13). You can therefore use applications that support SANE to capture images from WebCams, TV tuners, and the like. Likewise, SANE directly supports a few WebCams and digital cameras, even without Video for Linux.

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