Linked Computers

Communication between computers is a complex topic that raises many questions such as:

□ How is the physical connection established? Which cables are used? Which restrictions and special requirements apply in terms of the media?

□ How are transmission errors handled?

□ How are individual computers identified in a network?

□ How are data exchanged between computers connected to each other via intervening computers? And how is the best route found?

□ How are data packaged so that they are not reliant on special features of individual computers?

□ If there are several network services on a computer, how are they identified?

This catalog of questions could be extended at will. Unfortunately, the number of answers as well as the number of questions is almost unlimited, so that over time many suggestions have been put forward as to how to deal with specific problems. The most "reasonable" systems are those that classify problems into categories and create various layers to resolve clearly defined issues and communicate with the other layers by means of set mechanisms. This approach dramatically simplifies implementation, maintenance, and, above all, troubleshooting.

Continue reading here: ISOOSI and Tcpip Reference Model

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