[1 The pathnames of executable files are not fixed in Linux they depend on the distribution used Several standard naming schemes such as FHS have been proposed for all Unix systems

When a process starts running a new program, its execution context changes drastically since most of the resources obtained during the process's previous computations are discarded. In the preceding example, when the process starts executing /bin/ls, it replaces the shell's arguments with new ones passed as parameters in the execve( ) system call and acquires a new shell environment (see the later section Section 20.1.2). All pages inherited from the parent (and shared with the Copy On Write mechanism) are released so that the new computation starts with a fresh User Mode address space; even the privileges of the process could change (see the later section Section 20.1.1). However, the process PID doesn't change, and the new computation inherits from the previous one all open file descriptors that were not closed automatically while executing the execve( ) system call.[2]

Continue reading here: Process Credentials and Capabilities

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