[2 This is one of the few examples in which the kernel relies on an external program

The modprobe external program is similar to insmod, since it links in a module specified on the command line. However, modprobe also recursively links in all modules used by the module specified on the command line. For instance, if a user invokes modprobe to link the MS-DOS module, the program links the fat module, if necessary, followed by the MS-DOS module. Actually, modprobe just checks for module dependencies; the actual linking of each module is done by forking a new process and executing insmod.

How does modprobe know about module dependencies? Another external program named depmod is executed at system startup. It looks at all the modules compiled for the running kernel, which are usually stored inside the /lib/modules directory. Then it writes all module dependencies to a file named modules.dep. The modprobe program can thus simply compare the information stored in the file with the list of linked modules produced by the query_module( ) system call.

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