[8 Some operating systems allow filenames to be expressed in many different alphabets based on 16bit extended coding of graphical characters such as Unicode

Unix associates a current working directory with each process (see Section 1.6.1 later in this chapter); it belongs to the process execution context, and it identifies the directory currently used by the process. To identify a specific file, the process uses a pathname, which consists of slashes alternating with a sequence of directory names that lead to the file. If the first item in the pathname is a slash, the pathname is said to be absolute, since its starting point is the root directory. Otherwise, if the first item is a directory name or filename, the pathname is said to be relative, since its starting point is the process's current directory.

While specifying filenames, the notations "." and ".." are also used. They denote the current working directory and its parent directory, respectively. If the current working directory is the root directory, "." and ".." coincide.

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