Basic Operating System Concepts

Each computer system includes a basic set of programs called the operating system. The most important program in the set is called the kernel. It is loaded into RAM when the system boots and contains many critical procedures that are needed for the system to operate. The other programs are less crucial utilities; they can provide a wide variety of interactive experiences for the user—as well as doing all the jobs the user bought the computer for—but the essential shape and capabilities of the system are determined by the kernel. The kernel provides key facilities to everything else on the system and determines many of the characteristics of higher software. Hence, we often use the term "operating system" as a synonym for "kernel."

The operating system must fulfill two main objectives:

• Interact with the hardware components, servicing all low-level programmable elements included in the hardware platform.

• Provide an execution environment to the applications that run on the computer system (the so-called user programs).

Some operating systems allow all user programs to directly play with the hardware components (a typical example is MS-DOS). In contrast, a Unix-like operating system hides all low-level details concerning the physical organization of the computer from applications run by the user. When a program wants to use a hardware resource, it must issue a request to the operating system. The kernel evaluates the request and, if it chooses to grant the resource, interacts with the relative hardware components on behalf of the user program.

To enforce this mechanism, modern operating systems rely on the availability of specific hardware features that forbid user programs to directly interact with low-level hardware components or to access arbitrary memory locations. In particular, the hardware introduces at least two different execution modes for the CPU: a nonprivileged mode for user programs and a privileged mode for the kernel. Unix calls these User Mode and Kernel Mode, respectively.

In the rest of this chapter, we introduce the basic concepts that have motivated the design of Unix over the past two decades, as well as Linux and other operating systems. While the concepts are probably familiar to you as a Linux user, these sections try to delve into them a bit more deeply than usual to explain the requirements they place on an operating system kernel. These broad considerations refer to virtually all Unix-like systems. The other chapters of this book will hopefully help you understand the Linux kernel internals.

1.4.1 Multiuser Systems

A multiuser system is a computer that is able to concurrently and independently execute several applications belonging to two or more users. Concurrently means that applications can be active at the same time and contend for the various resources such as CPU, memory, hard disks, and so on. Independently means that each application can perform its task with no concern for what the applications of the other users are doing. Switching from one application to another, of course, slows down each of them and affects the response time seen by the users. Many of the complexities of modern operating system kernels, which we will examine in this book, are present to minimize the delays enforced on each program and to provide the user with responses that are as fast as possible.

• An authentication mechanism for verifying the user's identity

• A protection mechanism against buggy user programs that could block other applications running in the system

• A protection mechanism against malicious user programs that could interfere with or spy on the activity of other users

• An accounting mechanism that limits the amount of resource units assigned to each user

To ensure safe protection mechanisms, operating systems must use the hardware protection associated with the CPU privileged mode. Otherwise, a user program would be able to directly access the system circuitry and overcome the imposed bounds. Unix is a multiuser system that enforces the hardware protection of system resources.

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