Level of Description

Linux source code for all supported architectures is contained in more than 8,000 C and assembly language files stored in about 530 subdirectories; it consists of roughly 4 million lines of code, which occupy over 144 megabytes of disk space. Of course, this book can cover only a very small portion of that code. Just to figure out how big the Linux source is, consider that the whole source code of the book you are reading occupies less than 3 megabytes of disk space. Therefore, we would need more than 40 books like this to list all code, without even commenting on it!

So we had to make some choices about the parts to describe. This is a rough assessment of our decisions:

• We describe process and memory management fairly thoroughly.

• We cover the Virtual Filesystem and the Ext2 and Ext3 filesystems, although many functions are just mentioned without detailing the code; we do not discuss other filesystems supported by Linux.

• We describe device drivers, which account for a good part of the kernel, as far as the kernel interface is concerned, but do not attempt analysis of each specific driver, including the terminal drivers.

• We cover the inner layers of networking in a rather sketchy way, since this area deserves a whole new book by itself.

The book describes the official 2.4.18 version of the Linux kernel, which can be downloaded from the web site, http://www.kernel.org.

Be aware that most distributions of GNU/Linux modify the official kernel to implement new features or to improve its efficiency. In a few cases, the source code provided by your favorite distribution might differ significantly from the one described in this book.

In many cases, the original code has been rewritten in an easier-to-read but less efficient way. This occurs at time-critical points at which sections of programs are often written in a mixture of hand-optimized C and Assembly code. Once again, our aim is to provide some help in studying the original Linux code.

While discussing kernel code, we often end up describing the underpinnings of many familiar features that Unix programmers have heard of and about which they may be curious (shared and mapped memory, signals, pipes, symbolic links, etc.).

I [email protected] RuBoard

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