Knoppix Reference

Using the Red Hat Printer Configuration Window

If you are using Fedora, RHEL, or other Red Hat-sponsored systems, you can use the Printer Configuration window to set up your printers. In fact, I recommend that you use it instead of CUPS Web administration because the resulting printer configuration files are tailored to work with Red Hat systems. To install a printer from your GNOME desktop in Fedora, open the Printer Configuration window by selecting System C Administration C Printing (with Fedora 8, select System C Printing) or as root...

Installing Software in Knoppix

Despite the fact that KNOPPIX includes a wide range of software applications, there may be some software package you want to use with it that isn't included. For installing software while you are running KNOPPIX from the DVD, you can use Synaptic. To start Synaptic, click the squished penguin on the KNOPPIX panel and select Utilities C Manage Software in KNOPPIX. The Synaptic window opens, displaying lists of installed packages. Here's what you do to install a package 1. Reload the package...

Using the Metacity Window Manager

The Metacity window manager seems to have been chosen as the default window manager for GNOME in Red Hat Linux because of its simplicity. The creator of Metacity refers to it as a boring window manager for the adult in you and then goes on to compare other window managers to colorful, sugary cereal, while Metacity is characterized as Cheerios. i' f'r f r To use effects in Fedora, your best solution is to use the Compiz window manager, as There really isn't much you can do with Metacity (except...

Text Processing with Groff

The nroff and troff text formatting commands were the first interfaces available for producing typeset-quality documents with the UNIX system. They aren't editors, but commands through which you send your text, with the result being formatted pages. The nroff command produces formatted plain text and includes the capability to do pagination, indents, and text justification, as well as other features. The troff command produces typeset text, including everything nroff can do, plus the capability...

Effects with AIGLX

Several different initiatives have made strides in recent years to bring 3D desktop effects to Linux. openSUSE has the Xgl project (http en.opensuse.org Xgl), while Fedora has AIGLX The goal of the Accelerated Indirect GLX project (AIGLX) is to add 3D effects to everyday desktop systems. It does this by implementing OpenGL (http opengl.org) accelerated effects using the Mesa (www.mesa3d.org) open source OpenGL implementation. Currently, AIGLX supports a limited set of video cards and implements...

Partitioning with Disk Druid During Installation

During installation, Fedora gives you the opportunity to change how your hard disk is partitioned using a tool called Disk Druid in fact, the name Disk Druid seems to be going away, but the partitioning tool remains the same . The Disk Druid screen is divided into two sections. The top shows general information about each hard disk. The bottom shows details of each partition. Figure 7-1 shows an example of the Disk Druid window. Partition your disk during Fedora installation from the disk setup...

Performing Audio File Conversion and Compression

There are many different formats for storing and compressing speech and music files. Because music files can be large, they are usually stored in a compressed format. While MP3 has been the compression format of choice, Ogg Vorbis is quickly becoming a favorite for compressing music in the open source community. Ogg Vorbis has the added benefit of not being encumbered by patents as MP3 is. Linux tools for converting and compressing audio files include SoX (Sound eXchange) A general-purpose tool...

Mounting File Systems

Most of your hard disks are mounted automatically for you. When you install Fedora, Ubuntu, SUSE, or some other Linux systems, you are asked to create partitions and indicate the mount points for those partitions. (Other Linux installation procedures will expect you to know that you have to partition before beginning.) When you boot Linux, all Linux partitions residing on hard disk that are listed in your etc fstab file are typically mounted. For that reason, this section focuses mostly on how...

Using Your Camera as a Storage Device

Some digital cameras let you treat them like storage devices to manage pictures. By mounting a digital camera as a USB mass storage device, you can view, copy, delete, and move the pictures on your camera as you would files on a hard disk or CD (just at a lower speed). Table 20-3 is a partial summary of digital cameras that can be used as USB storage devices. For a current list, visit J , Y'f-rr At t Linux-USB Device Overview site (www. qbi k. ch usb devi ces i ndex. php), yOU can a so find the...

Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution

Chapter 7 Installing Linux 253 Choosing a Linux Linux at Work Other Distributions Getting Your Own Linux Distribution Finding Another Linux Understanding What You Need Downloading the Distribution Burning the Distribution to CD Exploring Common Installation Knowing Your Computer Hardware Upgrading or Installing from Scratch Dual Booting with Windows or Just Linux Using Installation Boot Options Partitioning Hard Partitioning with Disk Druid During Installation Partitioning with fdisk Tips for...

Adding More Software

While Ubuntu manages to install around 2GB of applications from a single Ubuntu CD, it's still only 2GB. By contrast, other implementations with multiple CDs in a set can install up to about 7GB of applications. To add more software to Ubuntu, you can use the common Debian packaging tools (apt-get, aptitude, and even dpkg). You can also use the Synaptic Package Manager for adding and removing software packages, which provides a friendly graphical interface, a handy Search function to help you...

Choosing a Window Manager

Window manager system-wide (in the etc X11 xinit xinitrc file). To use that tool, as the root user simply type xwmconfig from any shell on a Slackware system. Figure 3-15 shows an example of that screen. In Slackware, you can change window managers using the xwmconfig command. Select the window manager you want to try from that screen and select OK. That window manager will start the next time you run startx (provided you don't override it by creating your own .xinitrc file). Here are your...

Using the Nautilus File Manager

At one time, file managers did little more than let you run applications, create data files, and open folders. These days, as the information a user needs expands beyond the local system, file managers are expected to also display Web pages, access FTP sites, and play multimedia content. The Nautilus file manager, which is the default GNOME file manager, is an example of just such a file manager. When you open the Nautilus file manager window (for example, by opening the Home icon or another...

Configuring the CUPS Server cupsdconf

The cupsd daemon process listens for requests to your CUPS print server and responds to those requests based on settings in the etc cups cupsd.conf file. The configuration variables in the cupsd.conf file are in the same form as those in the Apache configuration file (httpd.conf). Red Hat's Printer Configuration window adds access information to the cupsd.conf file. For other Linux systems, you may need to configure the cupsd.conf file manually. You can step through the cupsd.conf file to...

Configuring a Shared CUPS Printer

Making the local printer added to your Linux computer available to other computers on your network is fairly easy. If a TCP IP network connection exists between the computers sharing the printer, you simply grant permission to all hosts, individual hosts, or users from remote hosts to access your computers printing service. To manually configure a printer entry in the etc cups cupsd.conf file to accept print jobs from all other computers, add an Allow from All line. The following example from a...

Configuring a Gnome Online Desktop

The GNOME Online Desktop project (http live.gnome.org OnlineDesktop) represents a new way of approaching desktop computing. It acknowledges that peoples' stuff (documents, digital images, videos, and so on) and activities (searches, blogging, e-mail, instant messaging, news feeds, and so on) are moving from the local hard disk to the Internet. The first experimental release of the GNOME Online Desktop was distributed with Fedora 8 near the end of 2007. However, because it is part of the GNOME...

The Gnome Desktop

GNOME (pronounced guh-nome) provides the desktop environment that you get by default when you install Fedora, Ubuntu, or another Linux system. This desktop environment provides the software that is between your X Window System framework and the look-and-feel provided by the window manager. GNOME is a stable and reliable desktop environment, with a few cool features. The GNOME 2.18 desktop comes with the most recent version of Fedora. Recent GNOME improvements include advancements in 3D effects...

Which Version Is Right for

Both Linspire and Freespire were built on the solid base of Debian Ubuntu Linux, the KDE desktop, and the OpenOffice.org office suite. With recent releases, the distributions have moved to embracing Ubuntu 7.04 (itself a Debian derivative) as their foundation, or base. Unlike many other Linux distributions, both come with a set of licensed commercial codecs for multimedia formats such as MP3, drivers, and other proprietary software. Although vendors provide such things for all varieties of...

Boot to a Graphical Login

Most desktop Linux systems that are installed on your hard disk boot up to a graphical login screen. Although the X display manager xdm is the basic display manager that comes with the X Window System, KDE and GNOME each have their own graphical display managers that are used as login screens kdm and gdm, respectively . So chances are that you will see the login screen associated with KDE or GNOME depending on which is the default on your Linux system . - r '., When Linux starts up, it enters...

Text Processing with TeXLaTeX

TeX (pronounced tech) is a collection of commands used primarily to produce scientific and mathematical typeset documents. The most common way to use TeX is by calling a macro package. The most popular macro package for TeX is LaTeX, which takes a higher-level approach to formatting TeX documents. TeX and LaTeX tools are contained in the tetex-latex package. TeX interprets the LaTeX macros from the LaTeX format file (latex.fmt). By default, the latex.fmt and plain.fmt format files are the only...

With gtkam and gPhoto2

With the gtkam window, you can download and work with images from digital cameras. The gtkam window is a front end to gPhoto2, which provides support for dozens of digital cameras in Linux. The gtkam window works by attaching a supported digital camera to a serial or USB port on your computer. You can view thumbnails of the digital images from the camera, view full-size images, and download the ones you select from the camera to your hard disk. fr. r you have a camera that saves images to a...

Getting Started with Commercial Games in Linux

How you get started with Linux gaming depends on how serious you are about it. If all you want to do is play a few games to pass the time, I've already described plenty of diverting X Window games that come with Linux. If you want to play more powerful commercial games, you can choose from the following Games for Microsoft Windows (Cedega 6.0) Many of the most popular commercial games created to run on Microsoft operating systems will run in Linux using Cedega. To get RPM versions of Cedega,...

Using the ghostscript and gv Commands

To display PostScript or PDF documents in Linux, you can use the ghostscript command. It is a fairly crude interface, intended to let you step through documents and interpret them one line at a time. You can display any PS or PDF file you happen to have on your computer. For example, if the samba package is installed, you can type the following to display a PDF file (otherwise, you can find your own PDF file to try it) ghostscript -sDEVICE x11 showpage, press to continue

Video Conferencing with Ekiga

The Ekiga window lets you communicate with other people over a network through video, audio, and typed messages. Because Ekiga supports the H323 protocol a standard for multimedia communications , you can use it to communicate with people using other popular videoconferencing clients, such as Microsoft NetMeeting, Cu-SeeMe, and Intel VideoPhone. Ekiga does not support the NetMeeting shared whiteboard functions, just videoconferencing. To be able to send video, you need a Webcam that is...

Using autofs to Mount NFS File Systems on Demand

Recent improvements to auto-detecting and mounting removable devices have meant that you can simply insert or plug in those devices to have them detected, mounted, and displayed. However, to make the process of detecting and mounting remote NFS file systems more automatic, you still need to use a facility such as autofs (short for automatically mounted file systems). The autofs facility will mount network file systems on demand when someone tries to use the file systems. With the autofs...

Setting Up an NFS File Server

Instead of representing storage devices as drive letters (A, B, C, and so on), as they are in Microsoft operating systems, Linux systems connect file systems from multiple hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and other local devices invisibly to form a single Linux file system. The Network File System (NFS) facility enables you to extend your Linux file system in the same way, to connect file systems on other computers to your local directory structure. An NFS file server provides an easy way to...

Setting Up Audio Cards

To start your quadraphonic wall of sound, you need to have a sound card in your PC. A sound card can be an add-in PCI (or even ISA) card, or it can be integrated on your motherboard. Your card will have a ton of uses from gaming to audio video playback. Having a multimedia system just isn't the same without sound. Fortunately, most modern PCs include a sound card, often of the integrated variety. In the rare case that one isn't included (or the slightly more common case where it isn't supported...

Converting Documents

Documents can come to you in many different formats. Search just some of the Linux FTP sites on the Internet and you will find files in PostScript, DVI, man, PDF, HTML, and TeX. There are also a variety of graphics formats. Table 21-2 is a list of common document and graphics conversion utilities. Document and Graphics Conversion Utilities Compressed PostScript format (The PostScript output is optimized to send to a printer on a low-speed line. This format is less efficient for images with a...

Manipulating Images with GIMP

GIMP is a free software program for manipulating photographs and graphical images. To create images with GIMP, you can either import a drawing, photograph, or 3D image, or you can create one from scratch. You can start GIMP from the system menu by selecting Graphics O The GIMP or by typing gimp& from a Terminal window. Figure 21-13 shows an example of GIMP In many ways, GIMP is similar to Adobe Photoshop. Some people feel that GIMP's scripting features are comparable to or even better than...

Modifying Images with KPaint

Using the KPaint window, a utility that comes with KDE, you can work with and convert images in several formats. Figure 21-15 shows an example of KPaint. Start KPaint from either the desktop (from most KDE desktops, select Graphics C Paint Program) or from a Terminal window ( usr bin kpaint&). Start with either a blank canvas or by opening an image in one of the supported formats (File C Open, browse for a file, and then click OK). Look in the usr share backgrounds directory for graphics to...

Securing Your Web Traffic with SSLTLS

You want to add security for your server, including your own certificates. Your data is important, and so is your capability to pass it along your network or the Internet to others. Networks just aren't secure enough by themselves to protect your communications. This section examines ways in which you can help guard your communications. Electronic commerce applications such as online shopping and banking are generally encrypted using either the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer...

Creating an Image Gallery with Konqueror

There's a neat feature in Konqueror that lets you create a quick image gallery. The feature takes a directory of images, creates thumbnails for each one, and generates an HTML (Web) page. The HTML page includes a title you choose, all image thumbnails arranged on a page, and links to the larger images. Here's how you do it 1. Add images you want in your gallery to any folder (for example, home chris Pictures). Make sure they are sized, rotated, and cropped the way you like before beginning....

Knoppix Features

KNOPPIX has so many features it's hard to find a place to start. The latest official version of KNOPPIX at the time of this writing (KNOPPIX 5.1.1), features X.Org7.1, OpenOffice.org 2.1.0, KDE 3.5.5, GIMP 2.2.11, Linux kernel 2.6.19, as well as many multimedia applications. More information can be found on the KNOPPIX homepage (www.knoppix.com). One of the most useful features of the most recent versions of KNOPPIX is the ease with which you can create your own, personalized KNOPPIX disk. The...

Configuring DNS for Direct Delivery

For direct delivery to function, the SMTP service (TCP port 25) must be accessible to the outside world through a fixed name in DNS. This name will be in the form of an A (Address) record. A records allow DNS resolver processes to determine the IP address associated with a specific name and are used by most of the common protocols on the Internet. A typical DNS A record looks something like this bigserver.example.org IN A 10.0.12.16 The first parameter, bigserver.example.org, is the label, and...

Using the GCC Compiler

The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is by far the most dominant compiler (rather, the most dominant collection of compilers) used on Linux systems. It compiles programs written in C, C++, Objective-C, Fortran, Java, and Ada. This chapter focuses on the C compiler. GCC gives programmers extensive control over the compilation process. That process includes up to four stages preprocessing, compilation, assembly, and linking. You can stop the process after any of these stages to examine the...

Creating Text Mode User Interfaces with SLang

S-Lang, created by John Davis, is an alternative to ncurses for creating TUIs. In addition to providing screen manipulation and cursor control routines, S-Lang also consists of an embeddable S-Lang interpreter, a large library of built-in (intrinsic) routines that simplify certain parts of programming, and a variety of predefined data types and data structures. Listing 28-4 shows the same program as Listing 28-3, with appropriate updates to reflect use of S-Lang instead of ncurses. Reading...

The Command Line Programming Environment

The Linux command-line programming environment or CLI (command-line interface) stands in sharp contrast to the GUI IDEs described in the previous section. It often shocks developers who have only a Windows development background and who aren't accustomed to using a CLI. To be fair, it must be intimidating to find yourself in front of a command prompt without anything to double-click to start and not the faintest clue how to proceed. That said, while a CLI might seem Spartan to the newcomer,...

Installing ClamAV and Spam Assassin

Installing and configuring the virus and spam filtering mechanisms is more involved than installing Exim and Courier, but should still go smoothly as long as you follow the steps carefully. Keep in mind, however, that this will add a lot of complexity to the system, so it is a good idea to make sure the Exim mail server is working first so that you don't have as many things to check if the system doesn't work as expected. The version of ClamAV included with Debian starting with version 3.1 (aka...

Choosing a Text Editor

Hardcore UNIX or Linux users tend to edit files with either the vi or emacs text editor. These editors have been around a long time and are hard to learn but efficient to use because your fingers never leave the keyboard. The emacs editor has some GUI support, although it runs fine in a Terminal window. There are also GUI versions of vi and emacs that add menu and mouse features to the editors. These are GVim (gvim command in the vim-X11 package) and Xemacs (xemacs command) editors. The...

Creating Documents in Groff or LaTeX

You can use any text editor to create documents for both Linux's Groff (troff nroff) and LaTeX styles of publishing. Most Linux distributions come with several text editors. You always have the option to download others from the Internet. (See the Choosing a Text Editor sidebar for more information.) Here are the general steps for creating documents in Groff or LaTeX 1. Create a document with any text editor. The document will contain text and markup. 2. Format the document using a formatting...

Be extremely careful using the Remove All Partitions option Avoid using it at all if

On most multi-boot systems, you will want to select Automatically partition. Then select the Keep all partitions and use existing free space option and the Review (and modify if needed) the partitions created check box to make sure that you are using the correct portion of your hard drive. 9. Identify your network settings, including DHCP You use your network configuration for LAN (local area network) connections, such as when you are using a router between your cable or DSL connection and the...

Connecting to the Internet with Wireless

Setting up a wireless network connection can be one of the more challenging features to get working in Linux. Despite improvements to open source drivers for many wireless devices, you can't assume that any wireless card connected to a computer running Linux will just work. Wireless card manufacturers have, for the most part, not released specifications for their equipment that would allow open source developers to create Linux drivers. Most vendors simply produce binary-only drivers for...

Configuring Ethernet from the Desktop

Most major Linux distributions offer graphical tools for configuring network interfaces. These tools step you through the information you need to enter, and then start up the network interface (if you choose) to begin browsing the Web. Here is a list of tools for configuring network interfaces in a few different Linux distributions. Some of these are graphical tools, and some are menu-based Red Hat Enterprise Fedora Linux The Network Configuration window lets you configure a network connection...

Changing the Display

You can change a lot of the look-and-feel of your desktop display. Under the Appearance & Themes topic (click the plus sign), you can change Background, Colors, Fonts, Icons, Launch Feedback, Panel, Screen Saver, Style, Theme Manager, and Window Decoration. Here are a few of the desktop features you may want to change Background Under the Appearance & Themes heading in the KDE Control Center, select Background. By default, all of your virtual desktops use the same background. To have different...

Using the vi Text Editor

It's almost impossible to use Linux for any period of time and not need to use a text editor. This is because most Linux configuration files are plain text files that you will almost certainly need to change manually at some point. If you are using a GUI, you can run gedit, which is fairly intuitive for editing text. There's also a simple text editor you can run from the shell called nano. However, most Linux shell users will use either vi or emacs to edit text files. The advantage of vi or...