NFS has long been the standard file-sharing protocol among Linux and other Unix-like OSs. NFS supports Unix-style ownership and permissions, which is an important consideration on many Linux installations. It's also well supported in the Unix world generally, so sharing files across Unix-like OSs usually poses no serious problems.
Linux's NFS servers have changed substantially over the years. Simple configurations tend to work much as they always have, but many more advanced specific options have been quite ephemeral. In order to function as an NFS server, a computer must have a configuration file defining the directories you want to export. (The word export is often used as a noun to refer to a served directory). To access a remote NFS server's files, you mount the exports using the same mount command you use to mount local filesystems.
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