Red Hat Web Servers Apache and

Red Hat provides several Web servers for use on your system. The primary Web server is Apache, which has almost become the standard Web server for Linux. It is a very powerful, stable, and fairly easy to configure system. Tux is smaller, but very fast, and can handle Web data that does not change with great efficiency. Red Hat provides default configurations for the Web servers, making them usable as soon as they are installed.

Tux is a static content Web server designed to be run very fast from within the Linux kernel. In effect it runs in kernel space, making response times much faster than standard user-space Web servers like Apache. As a kernel-space server, Tux can handle static content such as images very efficiently. At the same time it can coordinate with a user-space Web server, like Apache, to provide the dynamic content, like CGI programs. Tux can even make use of a cache to hold previously generated dynamic content, using it as if it were static. The ability to coordinate with a user-space Web server lets you use Tux as your primary Web server. Anything that Tux cannot handle, it will pass off to the user-space Web server.

Note Tux is freely distributed under the GNU Public License and is included with Red Hat distributions.

The Tux configuration file is located in /proc/sys/net/tux. Here you enter parameters such as serverport, max_doc_size, and logfile (check the Tux reference manual at www.redhat.com/support/manuals for a detailed listings). Red Hat defaults are already entered. serverport, clientport, and documentroot are required parameters that must be set. serverport is the port Tux will use-80 if it is the primary Web server. clientport is the port used by the user-space Web server Tux coordinates with, like Apache. documentroot specifies the root directory for your Web documents (/var/www/html on Red Hat).

Ideally, Tux is run as the primary Web server and Apache as the secondary Web server. To configure Apache to run with Tux, the port entry in the Apache httpd.conf file needs to be changed from 80 to 8080.

You can start, stop, and restart the server with the /etc/rd.d/init.d/tux command. Several parameters like DOCROOT can be specified as arguments to this tux command. You can enter them in the /etc/sysconfig/tux file.

Port 8080

Note You can also run Tux as an FTP server. In the /proc/sys/net/tux directory, you change the contents of the files serverport to 21, application_protocol to 1, and nonagle to 0, and then restart Tux. Use the generatetuxlist command in the document root directory to generate FTP directory listings.

The Apache Web server is a full-featured free HTTP (Web) server developed and maintained by the Apache Server Project. The aim of the project is to provide a reliable, efficient, and easily extensible Web server, with free open-source code. The server software includes the server daemon, configuration files, management tools, and documentation. The Apache Server Project is maintained by a core group of volunteer programmers and supported by a great many contributors worldwide. The Apache Server Project is one of several projects currently supported by the Apache Software Foundation (formerly known as the Apache Group). This nonprofit organization provides financial, legal, and organizational support for various Apache open-source software projects, including the Apache HTTPD Server, Java Apache, Jakarta, and XML-Apache. The Web site for the Apache Software Foundation is at www.apache.org. Table 24-1 lists various Apache-related Web sites.

Apache was originally based on the NCSA Web server developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, Urbana- Champaign. Apache has since emerged as a server in its own right and has become one of the most popular Web servers in use. Although originally developed for Linux and Unix systems, Apache has become a cross-platform application with Windows and OS2 versions. Apache provides online support and documentation for its Web server at httpd.apache.org. An HTML-based manual is also provided with the server installation. You can use the Apache configuration tool, installed with Red Hat, to help configure your Apache server easily. It operates on any X Windows window manager, including Gnome and KDE. In addition, you can use the Comanche configuration tool. Webmin and Linuxconf also provide Apache configuration support.

Table 24-1: Apache-Related Web Sites

Web Site

Description

www.apache.org

Apache Software Foundation

httpd.apache.org

Apache HTTP Server Project

java.apache.org

Java Apache Project

jakarta.apache.org

Jakarta Apache Project

gui.apache.org

Apache GUI Project

www.comanche.org

Comanche (Configuration Manager for Apache)

www.apache-ssl.org

Apache-SSL server (Secure Socket Layer)

www.openssl.org

OpenSSL project

www.modssl.org

The SSL module (mod_ssl) project to add SSL encryption to an Apache Web server

Other Web servers available for Linux include the Red Hat Secure Server (www.redhat.com), Apache-SSL (www.apache-ssl.org), Stronghold (www.c2.net), and Netscape Enterprise Server (home.netscape.com). Apache-SSL is an encrypting Web server

Table 24-2: Apache Web Server Files and Directories (RPM Installation)

Web Site Directories

Description

/var/www/html

Web site Web files

/var/www/cgi-bin

CGI program files

/var/www/html/manual

Apache Web server manual

Configuration Files

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