The special devices used in VoIP deployments may introduce a number of new security concerns to existing network technology. They can be classified as
• Product-specific vulnerabilities, such as design and implementation errors, buffer overflows, missing format strings, and other exploitable software flaws
• Configuration-related vulnerabilities, such as weak or default passwords, unencrypted network services, modem lines for remote vendor support, and information disclosure through configuration and log files.
Remote access to IP phones and VoIP equipment in general is a severe risk, and relying on the security of devices placed on end-users' premises (such as ATAs, MTAs, and eMTAs) is always a bad idea.
As with conventional equipment, VoIP-specific attacks can compromise each requirement of the CIA paradigm, specifically leading to toll fraud, call eavesdropping and tracing, call hijacking, caller ID spoofing, and denial of service.
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