IPv6 is the next generation Internet Protocol and will detach IPv4 in the future. Most operating systems will be already IPv6-capable and have the new protocol enabled by default. Since IPv6 isn't widely deployed yet, you might be able to overlook that.
Auto configuration is one of the core features of IPv6. Thus every interface in an IPv6-enabled system will have an automatically configured so-called link local address that allows communication with the other hosts in the same LAN segment. As you can see in Figure A-2 the device eth0 has such a link-local address configured. All these addresses are within the prefix fe80::. The address will be built using that prefix and the MAC address of the Ethernet card.
Hosts within the same LAN segment may communicate with each other through these link-local addresses, even if IPv6 hasn't been configured. Because access controls are often configured independently for the IPv4 and IPv6 address family, a hole might be open if the status of IPv6 on the system hasn't been taken into account.
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