File Replacement Rootkits User Mode

The early Linux rootkits consisted mainly of a collection of modified, backdoored system binaries that could be deployed to a compromised system. They were modified to ignore the presence of attackers and the files, folders, processes, and ports used by them. They also usually contained a backdoor that allowed attackers easy access back into the system in the event the original attack vector was no longer viable. These rootkits are called usermode or user-land rootkits.

A good example of a Linux user-mode rootkit is Linux Rootkit 5 (LRK5). Files replaced with trojaned versions include:

In addition to these files, LRK5 also comes with a few other files, but they do not replace existing files on the system. They are mainly support files that assist in the operation of the above listed files or that aid in hiding attackers' activities.

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