Optimally, a comprehensive detection scheme should involve several detection methodologies for greater robustness and reliability. No single detection methodology can hope to be successful in identifying malicious or covert communication on a consistent basis. Following are the three detection methodologies:
• Signature-based detection If the type of traffic being looked for is known, a signature-based detection methodology could be useful. Many common intrusion detection rules would help to identify any kind of malfeasance that took place over the tunnel, providing it is not encrypted or it has a signature.
• Protocol-based detection Using a protocol-based detection methodology entails searching network communication streams for protocol violations or anomalies. However, any form of a protocol-based detection scheme needs to consider protocol state variations between different operating systems and distributions.
• Behavioral-based detection The behavioral-based detection methodology involves creating profiles for users and machines that can be used as reference and comparison points for performing network stream analysis. These profiles can either be created automatically through some sort of learning process or specified manually.
Keep in mind that different detection methodologies may discover the same kind of communication for similar, but slightly different, reasons. For instance, ICMP tunnels could be detected by all three detection methodologies. A signature-based detection methodology could identify ICMP tunneling by using a signature to identify nondefault data in an ICMP packet. A protocol-based detection methodology could identify it by observing nondefault data contained in the payload. A behavioral-based detection methodology would detect it by noting that uncommon, nonprofiled data is included in the data portion of ICMP.
To prevent tunneling, an intelligent firewall, proxy, or IPS is required. A device that could be used successfully must ideally be inline with the traffic and use one or more of the three detection methodologies just mentioned.
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