Integrity is the control of methods and assets from undisclosed changes. To assure that no change has taken place various techniques are used to measure the current state of an asset so that at any time in the future, an asset's state can be remeasured and compared to its true state. Some techniques use hardware like Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and some use software to create one-way hashes of the state. Many encryption processes for communications use such hashes to prevent altered or scrambled communications from being misinterpreted.
Applying integrity controls correctly is fairly easy as long as the state being measured for the control is absolutely untainted. The difficult part of the process is making sure that the saved hashes don't get lost or tainted themselves or else there is no possible means of verifying the state.
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