Rfid Frequency Standards

The main parties responsible for frequency allocation are listed here:

• U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

• Canada Department of Communication (DOC)

• Europe European Radicommunications Office (ERO), European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

• Japan Ministry of Public Management (MPHPT)

• China Ministry of Information Industry

• Australia Ministry of Economic Development

• International/Proprietary Legic, Philips, MIFARE

Low-frequency (LF) tags operate around 120-140 kHz and are most commonly found in legacy proximity access control implementations and animal tagging.

High-frequency (HF) tags operate around 13.56 MHz within the industrial-scientific-medical (ISM) band. They are usually larger than UHF and only have a transmission distance of about two inches up to three feet.

Ultra-high frequency (UHF) tags typically operate in the 868-956 MHz band. Other devices such as cordless phones also operate in this spectrum. UHF tags are used heavily in EPC Global supply chain and other retail applications. One of the major drawbacks with UHF is that it does not work well around liquids such as the human body, making it unsuitable for applications involving human implants.

Microwave frequency tags operate in the 2.4 GHz (or higher) band. Both active microwave tags as well as passive backscatter microwave tags are available. The 2.4 GHz ISM band is quite crowded since it is also used by Bluetooth and WiFi communications, as well as cordless phones. The problem with liquids, as described for UHF tags, is even worse at 2.4 GHz.

Both the low frequencies and high frequencies may be used in many countries globally without a license. Users should check local laws before operating RF equipment, as laws may vary.

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