Contents

Notices xiii

Trademarks xiv

Preface xv

The team that wrote this redbook xvi

Acknowledgements xviii

Become a published author xviii

Comments welcome xix

Part 1. Background and planning 1

Chapter 1. Introduction 3

1.1 What is Linux? 4

1.2 Linux kernels, distributions, and distributors 4

1.2.1 The Linux kernel 5

1.2.2 The Linux operating system 5

1.2.3 Linux distributions 5

1.3 How this book is organized 6

1.4 Linux administration overview 7

1.4.1 Documentation 8

1.4.2 Utilities 8

1.4.3 Standards 9

1.4.4 Support 10

1.5 Reference materials 10

Chapter 2. Planning for migration 11

2.1 Assemble the stakeholders 12

2.2 Set objectives and define scope 13

2.3 Assess workload and environment 14

2.3.1 Workload types 14

2.3.2 ISV applications 16

2.3.3 Custom application porting 16

2.3.4 Databases 16

2.3.5 Integration with existing network services 16

2.3.6 Other important infrastructure requirements 17

2.3.7 Special hardware 17

2.4 Assess skill requirements 17

Part 2. System administration differences guide 21

Chapter 3. Operating system installation 23

3.1 Basic system installation 24

3.1.1 Graphical or text installation 25

3.1.2 Other installation methods 25

3.1.3 System bundle options 26

3.1.4 Linux LVM consideration 27

3.1.5 Linux firewall 28

3.2 Advanced installation and automation 29

3.2.1 Installing using a serial interface as input/output device 29

3.2.2 Configuring a serial console device 30

3.2.3 Installing using remote display 31

3.2.4 Solaris Jumpstart 32

3.2.5 Red Hat Kickstart 32

3.2.6 SUSE AutoYaST 37

3.2.7 The PXE protocol 47

3.3 Network-based install: Solaris and Linux heterogeneous environments. . 47

3.3.1 Solaris system serving Linux network installation 47

3.3.2 Linux system serving Solaris network installation 50

Chapter 4. Disks and file systems 51

4.1 Disks and disk partitioning 52

4.1.1 Disks 52

4.1.2 Disk partitions 53

4.2 Disk-based file system management 55

4.3 Virtual file systems 56

4.4 Network File System (NFS) 58

4.5 Swap file systems 58

4.6 File system journaling 59

4.7 File system organization 60

4.8 AutoFSCK 62

4.10 Solaris Volume Manager to Linux LVM 65

4.11 VERITAS VxVM and VxFS 73

Chapter 5. Software management 75

5.1 Packages 76

5.1.1 Package management in Solaris 76

5.1.2 Package management in Linux 76

5.2 Patching 78

5.2.1 Patching in Solaris 79

5.2.2 Patching in Linux 79

5.3 Dependencies 79

5.3.1 Dependency management in Solaris 80

5.3.2 Dependency management in Linux 80

5.4 Package distribution methods 80

5.5 Automated software management 81

5.5.1 Automated software management in Solaris 81

5.5.2 Automated software management in Linux 81

5.6 Activating fixes after updating 82

5.6.1 Patch activation in Solaris 82

5.6.2 Patch activation in Linux 82

5.7 Compiling patches in Linux 82

Chapter 6. Device management 85

6.1 Device access and configuration 86

6.1.1 Device naming and access 86

6.1.2 Displaying device configuration information 89

6.1.3 Adding a device 92

6.1.4 Hot-plug devices 93

6.2 Removable media devices 94

6.2.1 Supported types 94

6.2.2 Managing and accessing removable media 94

6.2.3 Formatting removable media 96

6.2.4 CDs and DVDs 96

6.2.5 Tape drives 98

6.3 Terminals and modems 101

6.3.1 Terminal setup and initialization 102

6.3.2 Modem setup tools 103

6.3.3 Serial port management 103

6.3.4 Port monitoring 104

6.4 Distribution-based device management tools 105

Chapter 7. Network services 107

7.1 IPv4 108

7.2 IPv6 113

7.3 Mixed IPv4 and IPv6 networks 114

7.4 Static and dynamic routing 114

7.5 IPSec and IKE 116

7.6 Network multipath 116

7.7 Network trunking 116

7.8 IP network services 117

7.8.1 inetd-based versus xinetd-based network services 117

7.8.2 DHCP 119

7.8.5 LDAP 120

7.8.8 Web proxy and cache servers 122

7.8.9 Mail services 122

7.9 TCP wrappers 123

7.10 IP stateful firewalling 123

Chapter 8. Boot and system initialization 125

8.1 Booting a system 126

8.1.1 Booting types 126

8.1.2 Booting sources 127

8.1.3 Booting process overview 127

8.2 Run levels 131

8.3 Boot configuration files 132

8.3.1 /etc/inittab file 133

8.3.2 Run control files (rc files) 133

8.3.3 Disabling rc scripts 134

8.4 Shutting down 135

8.5 Network booting 135

Chapter 9. Managing system resources 139

9.1 Displaying system information 140

9.2 Resource management 140

9.3 Starting and stopping system services 141

9.3.1 Solaris system services 141

9.3.2 Linux system services 142

9.4 Scheduling and cron services 144

9.5 Quotas 145

9.6 Process accounting 146

9.6.1 Solaris 146

9.6.2 Linux 146

9.7 Remote system management services 147

9.7.1 Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) 147

9.7.2 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 149

Chapter 10. Printing services 151

10.1 Overview 152

10.2 Linux CUPS 152

10.3 Client and server setup 153

10.4 Printer management using the lp commands 154

10.5 Printer types and CUPS support 156

Chapter 11. Users and groups 159

11.1 Basic user administration 160

11.2 Commands 160

11.2.1 Adding user accounts 160

11.2.2 Changing user account information 161

11.2.3 Removing user accounts 162

11.2.4 Home directory 163

11.3 Directory services 163

11.4 NIS and NIS+ 164

11.5 User ID and group ID differences 165

Chapter 12. Monitoring and performance 173

12.1 Processors 175

12.2 Real and virtual memory 175

12.3 Physical media, software RAID, LVM, and file systems 176

12.3.1 Logical volume groups and logical volumes 177

12.3.2 File systems 178

12.4 Network 178

12.5 System and user processes 179

Chapter 13. Backup and restore 181

13.1 Common backup tools 182

13.2 Compression tools 182

13.3 File system backup and restore 183

13.3.1 Solaris overview 183

13.3.2 Linux overview 183

13.4 File system snapshots 184

13.5 AMANDA 185

Chapter 14. Security and hardening 187

14.1 Patching and security updates 188

14.2 Security hardening 188

14.2.1 Hardening tools 188

14.2.2 Auditing: ASET/BSM 189

14.3 Securing and removing services 189

14.3.1 inetd/xinetd 189

14.3.2 TCP wrappers 190

14.3.3 FTP 191

14.4 Kernel tuning for security 192

14.5 Logging 193

14.6 Access control lists 194

14.7 PAM 194

14.7.1 PAM module types 195

14.7.2 Limiting superuser login to secure terminals 196

14.7.3 Restricting user login 197

14.8 umask 197

14.9 SSH 197

14.10 IPSec and IKE 198

14.11 Kerberos 199

14.12 Warning banners 202

14.13 Firewalls 202

Chapter 15. Linux high availability overview 205

15.1 Introduction to Linux-HA 206

15.1.1 Migration scenarios 206

15.1.2 Some features of Linux-HA 206

15.2 Linux-HA services 207

15.2.1 Heartbeat 207

15.2.2 Cluster Resource Manager (CRM) 207

15.2.3 Consensus Cluster Membership (CCM) 208

15.2.4 Local Resource Manager (LRM) 208

15.2.5 STONITH daemon 208

15.3 Linux migration 208

15.4 Cluster environment considerations 209

15.4.1 Data sharing arrangements 209

15.4.2 IBM ServeRAID 209

Chapter 16. Shell scripting 211

16.1 Overview of the shell environment 212

16.1.1 Solaris shell environments 212

16.1.2 Linux shell environments 212

16.2 Public Domain Korn shell 213

16.3 Moving from ksh to bash 213

Chapter 17. Troubleshooting 215

17.1 Troubleshooting the booting process 216

17.2 Core files 216

17.3 Crash dumps 218

17.4 Logs 220

17.5 Permissions: File access problems 222

17.5.1 Problem: Command not found 222

17.5.2 Problem: File access 223

17.6 Printing 223

17.6.1 Troubleshooting remote printer connectivity 224

17.6.2 Troubleshooting local printers 224

17.7 File systems 225

17.7.1 Remote file systems 226

17.7.2 Software RAID 227

17.7.3 Logical volumes 227

17.8 Packages 227

17.9 root password recovery 229

17.10 Network 230

17.11 System and user processes 231

17.12 Diagnostic and debugging tools 232

Part 3. IBM eServer platforms 235

Chapter 18. IBM eServer xSeries hardware platform specifics 237

18.1 Installation considerations 238

18.1.1 xSeries 238

18.1.2 BladeCenter 239

18.2 Hardware and device differences 239

18.2.1 xSeries 240

18.2.2 BladeCenter 244

18.3 References 245

Chapter 19. IBM POWER technology hardware platform specifics . . . . 247

19.1 Planning 248

19.1.1 IBM eServer i5 and eServer p5 248

19.1.2 IBM eServer BladeCenter JS20 254

19.2 Booting and system initialization 259

19.2.1 IBM eServer i5 and eServer p5 259

19.2.2 eServer BladeCenter JS20 264

19.3 Linux installation 278

19.3.1 eServer i5 and eServer p5 278

19.3.2 eServer BladeCenter JS20 278

19.3.3 Red Hat 279

19.3.4 Novell SUSE 280

19.3.5 YaBoot OpenFirmware boot loader 283

19.4 eServer i5 and eServer p5 virtualization 284

19.4.1 Create a virtual I/O server partition profile 285

19.4.2 Create a client partition profile 291

19.4.3 Configure Linux on a virtual I/O server 295

19.4.4 Configure Linux on a virtual client partition 302

19.5 POWER technology platform service and productivity tools 303

19.5.1 Red Hat 304

19.5.2 Novell SUSE 304

19.6 References and further readings 304

Chapter 20. IBM eServer zSeries and IBM System z hardware platform specifics 307

20.1 Planning 309

20.1.1 Hardware resources 310

20.1.2 Software resources 310

20.1.3 Networking resources 311

20.1.4 Linux distributions and z/VM 311

20.2 S/390 and zSeries overview 312

20.2.1 Processing units 312

20.2.2 Memory 312

20.2.3 The channel subsystem 313

20.2.4 Tape drives 315

20.2.5 Disk drives 315

20.2.6 Network 316

20.2.7 Printers 319

20.2.8 Logical partition concepts 319

20.2.9 Virtualization 320

20.3 Installation methods and techniques 320

20.3.1 Preparing the z/VM guest resources 321

20.3.2 Server farms or cloned environments 321

20.4 Booting, system initialization, and shutdown 326

20.5 Device management 327

20.5.1 Linux reconfigurability 327

20.5.2 DASD hot-plug example 328

20.6 Performance monitoring and tuning 331

20.6.1 Performance monitoring 331

20.6.2 Performance tuning 333

20.7 Troubleshooting and diagnostics 334

20.7.1 z/VM troubleshooting and diagnostics 334

20.7.2 Linux troubleshooting and diagnostics 335

20.8 S/390 and zSeries-specific Linux commands 335

20.8.1 Packages specifically for the mainframe 336

20.8.2 Commands specifically for the mainframe 336

20.9 High availability 338

20.9.1 Hardware HA 338

20.9.3 Automating Linux guest boot and shutdown 339

20.9.4 Linux-HA 340

20.9.5 Backup and recovery options 340

20.10 Security 341

20.11 References 342

Part 4. Appendixes 343

Appendix A. Tasks reference 345

Packaging 346

Installing and upgrading tasks 346

Booting and shutting down 348

User management tasks 351

Device management and configuration 352

Network management and configuration 353

NFS management and configuration 354

Managing system resources 354

Managing system services 355

Managing scheduling and cron 356

Managing quota 356

Managing process accounting 357

Printer management and configuration 357

Disk and file system management 358

Swap management 359

Logical volume management 359

General troubleshooting 362

Network troubleshooting 363

Appendix B. Commands and configuration files reference 365

Configuration and other files 366

Comparable commands 367

Common Solaris and Linux commands 369

Appendix C. UNIX to Linux Porting: A Comprehensive Reference (table of contents and sample chapter) 371

Table of contents 372

Chapter 1 Porting Project Considerations 373

Software Application Business Process 373

The Porting Process 374

Defining Project Scope and Objectives 378

Estimating 380

Creating a Porting Project Schedule 385

Porting Process from a Business Perspective 387

Annotated Sample Technical Questionnaire 387

Summary 394

Appendix D. Example: System information gathering script 397

Appendix E. Additional material 401

Locating the Web material 402

Using the Web material 402

Related publications 403

IBM Redbooks 403

Other publications 404

Online resources 405

How to get IBM Redbooks 411

Help from IBM 411

Index 413

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