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Covert Commissions

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The SUSE Mailing Lists

SUSE sponsors 51 electronic mailing lists in multiple languages to allow users to help each other with problems and questions. The general list in English, suse-linux-e, generates some 150 messages per day on all topics, but most lists are more specialized. Read descriptions of all the lists, with links to the list archives, at You can also subscribe to multiple lists on this page just check the box next to the list you want to subscribe to and type your email address at the bottom of the page. You must subscribe to a list to post a question.

Mailing Lists and Newsgroups

Mailing lists constitute the primary means of communication and serve as the mechanism of record for open source projects. A mailing list is nothing more than a system whereby communications are posted via e-mail and the postings are then forwarded to the list's subscribers. The software managing the mailing list keeps an archive of the messages, usually grouped by month and then organized by topic. Reading the archives is a great way to understand how people use the software you're interested in and what sorts of problems are common. You should also feel free to subscribe to the mailing lists of projects in which you have greater interest. To do this, you need to supply your e-mail address. Don't worry about being spammed these sites are run by people like you and aren't interested in enhancing anything other than your technical knowledge. As a subscriber to the list, you can choose to receive messages as they're posted or once a day, in digest mode. Digest mode is fine for...

Read the Debian security mailing lists

It is never wrong to take a look at either the debian-security-announce mailing list, where advisories and fixes to released packages are announced by the Debian security team, or at where you can participate in discussions about things related to Debian security. In order to receive important security update alerts, send an email to (mailto debian- security-announce - request with the word subscribe in the subject line. You can also subscribe to this moderated email list via the web page at http MailingLists subscribe. This mailing list has very low volume, and by subscribing to it you will be immediately alerted of security updates for the Debian distribution. This allows you to quickly download new packages with security bug fixes, which is very important in maintaining a secure system (see 'Execute a security update' on page 44 for details on how to do this).

Subscribe to the Debian Security Announce mailing list

In order to receive information on available security updates you should subscribe yourself to the debian-security-announce mailing list in order to receive the Debian Security Advisories (DSAs). See 'The Debian Security Team' on page 125 for more information on how the Debian security team works. For information on how to subscribe to the Debian mailing lists read http You should consider, also, subscribing to the debian-security mailing list (http lists. debian-security) for general discussion on security issues in the Debian operating system. You will be able to contact other fellow system administrators in the list as well as Debian developers and upstream developers of security tools who can answer your questions and offer advice.

Defining Mailing Lists

Many of us belong to Internet mailing lists, Google groups, Yahoo groups, and other focused e-mail discussions of our favorite topics, including perhaps the various Ubuntu mailing lists discussed in Chapter 1. These types of mailing lists are usually handled by specialized software packages such as MailMan ( software mailman ), which handles things such as keeping the list members anonymous, providing a single e-mail address to send and respond to mail, and supporting online archives of mailing list traffic. While these requirements are almost mandatory for Internet-wide mailing lists, they are overkill for smaller mailing lists, such as your family, friends with a similar sense of humor, former colleagues from a previous employer, and so on. For most of us, having a simple way of associating multiple e-mail addresses with a single list name would suffice which is exactly what Evolution provides. Evolution makes it easy to set up your own mailing lists, known as Contact...

SUSE Public Mailing Lists

SUSE runs a number of public mailing lists. You can subscribe to them at www.suse The general-purpose SUSE list in English is the suse-linux-e list. This mailing list is a general technical discussion list with a high volume of messages. The quality of responses is high, and it is well worth joining provided you are prepared for the large number of mails you will receive. Other interesting and lively SUSE lists include suse-oracle and suse-slox-e (the English language mailing list for the SUSE Linux OpenExchange Server). Also of particular interest are the suse-autoinstall list, which is a valuable source of information about the use of AutoYaST, and the suse-security and suse-security-announce lists. If you are running SUSE Linux on a 64-bit AMD (or Intel EM64T) processor, you will be interested in the suse-amd64 list.

OpenSUSE Public Mailing Lists

There are a number of useful mailing lists for openSUSE. An overview of all the lists and how to subscribe to them is at http . The main English e-mail list for user-to-user support is simply called opensuse You can subscribe to this by sending mail to opensuse-subscribe This is a high volume list. In general, the quality of the answers on the lists is high there are a number of knowledgeable people who are willing to spend time helping others.

Blackdown Mailing Lists

To subscribe to the general discussion list, send an email message to java-linux-request with the word subscribe in the subject line. To unsubscribe, send a message to the same address with the word unsubscribe in the subject line. To participate, send your contributions to java-linux As with any civilized mailing list, it is wise to practice basic etiquette. Reasoned discussion is welcome flaming is not. Check the archives before asking a question that has already been discussed to death. Accord the other participants some basic respect

Configuring a Digital Subscriber Line DSL Connection

SUSE Linux supports all flavors of DSL connections, and they can all be set up in the YaST DSL configuration dialog boxes. DSL service generally provides 128KBps to 1 .OMBps transfer speeds, transmitting over copper phone lines from a Central Office (CO) to individual subscribers, like you. Many DSL services offer asymmetric speeds, usually offering higher download speeds than upload.

Forums and Mailing Lists

Since Fedora came into existence, many individuals and organizations have rallied to support Fedora going forward. If you want to get into the flow of the Fedora community, I recommend starting with the Fedora Project's own mailing lists. You can choose the Fedora mailing list that interests you from the Red Hat Mailing Lists page (http mailman listinfo). Start with the fedora-list or fedora-announce-list mailing list.

Hosting Electronic Mailing Lists

Mailing lists are a traditional method of asynchronous electronic collaboration. They require no special skills or text formatting abilities from the user, and can serve loads ranging from a small workgroup on a specific project to a global membership of thousands, even millions, of people interested in discussing the World Cup every four years. They are easy to administer, especially if the membership does not change much over time, and can help a website owner draw traffic with a touch of community. The concept of an automated list is pretty simple a list is an organized discussion among a group of people. To initiate a discussion (or thread), you can send a single message to the list management software, which then reflects the message to all list subscribers that is, the people interested in the discussion. Over the years, there have been several list management tools in use L-Soft's Listserv, majordomo, and Lyris, to name some of the best known. Recently, an open source package...

Creating a sendmail Alias Mailing List

You can implement a simple mailing list through a sendmail alias. In its simplest form, all you have to do is define an alias for the addresses in the etc aliases file. For example, suppose a large company has several websites (one in each major department), and the Webmasters decide to keep in touch through a mailing list. One of the Webmasters, Emily, volunteers to set up a mailing list for the group. To set up the mailing list, Emily (who logs in with the user name emily) adds the following alias to the etc aliases file

Configuring Digital Subscriber Line Access

Ubuntu also supports the use of a digital subscriber line (DSL) service. Although it refers to the different types of DSL available as xDSL, that name includes ADSL, IDSL, SDSL, and other flavors of DSL service they can all be configured using the Internet Connection Wizard. DSL service generally provides 256Kbps to 24Mbps transfer speeds and transmits data over copper telephone lines from a central office to individual subscriber sites (such as your home). Many DSL services provide asymmetric speeds with download speeds greater than upload speeds.

Red Hat Mailing Lists and Newsgroups

Many mailing lists and newsgroups are available to assist you with your problems. After you have been doing Linux for a while, there might even be questions that you can answer. Newsgroups are a great source of information. Before I list newsgroups that are available to you, I want to first mention the Red Hat mailing lists A newsgroup is a place where postings are and you can go get them. When you are on a mailing list, you are sent postings either in bulk or as they come in. redhat-digest This is the digest version of the redhat-list. Instead of getting mail that goes to the redhat-list as individual messages, subscribers to this list receive periodic volumes that include several posts at once. post-only This list is a fake list. It has no posting address, only a request address (post-only-request You can subscribe to this list and then you will be allowed to post to any of the Red Hat mailing lists without receiving any mail from those lists. This is because Red Hat...

Administering a Mailing List

Even though sendmail provides several flexible methods for aliasing addresses, many situations require additional functionality. Mailing list managers (or, more commonly, listservers) offer the ability to handle large distribution lists coupled with advanced features such as moderators, archives with file transfer, digests, automatic subscription, and automatic filtering of bad addresses. Listservers typically provide several options for how each list is configured (replies go to author, replies go to the list, anyone can post to the list, posts are restricted to subscribers, subscriptions are open to anyone, subscriptions must be confirmed, and so forth). They also provide options for how the messages are presented to the recipients (with custom headers and footers, subject prefixes, filtered text in the header or body, and so forth). This section briefly describes the majordomo mailing list manager. Majordomo is a free listserver written in Perl, with the exception of one wrapper...

Administering a Mailing List with mailman

Edit the usr lib mailman Mailman file and change the default_url_host and default_email_host values. For example, the hostname of the computer I'm configuring my mailing list on is toys The default e-mail host is The values would appear as follows 5. Edit the etc httpd conf.d mailman.conf file. To cause queries to mailman to go to the listinfo page, uncomment the RedirectMatch line at the bottom of the file and change that line to include your fully qualified domain name. For example, when I did this for the mailing list, the line appeared as follows 6. To create a mailman mailing list, you must first create an unpopulated mailing list called mailman. Along with that list, you must assign the e-mail and initial password for the person responsible for administering the list. To do that, type the following 8. Create a new mailing list, using the newlist command as follows To finish creating your mailing list, you must edit etc...

Deleting Subscribers from a Configuration Manager

Under normal circumstances, you do not need to delete subscribers from a configuration manager. You only need to delete a subscription to a profile on the managed server (by using the DELETE SUBSCRIPTION command). When you issue the DELETE SUBSCRIPTION command, the managed server automatically notifies the configuration manager of the deletion by refreshing its configuration information. As part of the refresh process, the configuration manager is informed of the profiles to which the managed server subscribes and to which it does not subscribe. If the configuration manager cannot be contacted immediately for a refresh, the configuration manager will find out that the subscription was deleted the next time the managed server refreshes configuration information. Deleting subscribers from a configuration manager is only necessary as a way to clean up in certain unusual situations. For example, you may need to delete subscribers if a managed server goes away completely or deletes its...

Security Mailing Lists

With a subscribed base of over 100,000 e-mail addresses, the CERT Advisory mailing list is the single most effective resource for staying abreast of security vulnerabilities. All messages are PGP-signed for authenticity. bugtraq archive The BugTraq mailing list is a moderated list of information security vulnerabilities. There's a bit more subjective information and general discussion than the CERT mailing list, but it's useful to subscribe nonetheless. firewalls The Firewalls mailing list is a forum for the discussion of Internet firewall security systems and related issues, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and philosophy of Internet firewall security The Firewall-Wizards secu- H rity mailing list is a moderated list of firewall- and security-related issues maintained by security pioneer Marcus J. Ranum. The list topics tend to be mostly conceptual, although there are often practical topics being discussed.

Watch Security Mailing Lists

Subscribing to vendor or product security announcement mailing lists greatly helps you keep up with recent security patches. Additionally, you can subscribe to some independent mailing lists such as the lists from SecurityFocus or Full-Disclosure. Of course, only watching the security mailing lists does not help alone announced patches need to be applied. It is especially important not to lose all relevant information. One idea is to use a support ticket system (as used on help desks) to receive security announcements and track their handling. Several open-source projects, such as OTRS or Request Tracker, can be used for that.

Ubuntu Project Mailing Lists

The Ubuntu Project is always expanding, as many new users continue to find Ubuntu for the first time. You will find many other knowledgeable users with answers to your questions by participating in one of Ubuntu's mailing lists. The lists are focused on using, testing, and developing and participating in Ubuntu's development

The Snort Mailing Lists

The Snort team maintains a number of Snort-related e-mail lists to which you can subscribe and post. Among the mailing lists are the following 1 snort-users is a mailing list where you can post your Snort questions. An entire community of Snort users on this list can help you with your problem. This list is busy, sometimes exceeding 1,000 posts per month.

Security Mailing Lists and Newsgroups

One of the problems with security Web sites is that they require constant mooitoriog. Fortunately, there are other types 1f resources that are more active in getting information to you. In particular, mailing lists are a means of communication that allow mail from individuals to reach an entire group of readers as quickly as the e-mail system can cperate. Many security mailing lists don't allow posting from members they exist solely to distribute information from the list maintainer. If you check your mail regularly, you can subscribe to a mailing list and learn of a new threat very soon after it is reported to that list. You can set up a Procmail filter (discussed in Chapter 19, Push Mail Protocol SMTP) to watch for mailing list postings and run a special program to get your attention when a new alert arrives over the list. For instance, you might write a script that causes Procmail to play a sound file or pop up a special alert dialog box. An information distribution medium that's...

Linux Mailing Lists

There is a large number of specialist Linux mailing lists on which you will find many people willing to help with questions you might have. The best-known of these are the lists hosted by Rutgers University. You may subscribe to these lists by sending an email message formatted as follows

Mailing lists

For many people the quality of Usenet News has been declining as more and more people start using it. One of the common complaints is the high level of beginners and the high level of noise. Many experienced people are moving towards mailing lists as their primary source of information since they often are more focused and have a better collection of subscribers and contributors. Mailing lists are also used by a number of different folk to distribute information. For example, vendors such as Sun and Hewlett Packard maintain mailing lists specific to their operating systems (Solaris and HP-UX). Professional associations such as SAGE-AU and SAGE also maintain mailing lists for specific purposes. In fact, many people believe the SAGE-AU mailing list to be the one of the best reasons for joining SAGE-AU as requests for assistance on this list are often answered within a few hours (or less).

Mailing List Servers

A mailing list server (listservlMI) allows you to create and manage an email list. An electronic mailing list provides a means for people interested in a particular topic to participate in an electronic discussion and for a person to disseminate information periodically to a potentially large mailing list. One of the most powerful features of most list servers is their ability to archive email postings to the list, create an archive index, and allow users to retrieve postings from the archive based on keywords or discussion threads. Typically you can subscribe and unsubscribe from the list with or without human intervention. The owner of the list can restrict who can subscribe, unsubscribe, and post messages to the list. Popular list servers include LISTSERV (, Lyris (, Majordomo ( majordomo), Mailman (, page 646), and ListProc ( Red Hat maintains quite a few mailing lists and list archives for those mailing...

Mailing List

There is a mailing list for discussion of Samba. To subscribe send mail to listproc with a body of subscribe samba Your Name Please do NOT send this request to the list alias instead. To send mail to everyone on the list mail to samba There is also an announcement mailing list where new versions are announced. To subscribe send mail to listproc with a body of subscribe samba-announce Your Name . All announcements also go to the samba list.

Using mailing lists

Mailing list servers, commonly called list servers, automate the use of mailing lists, including distribution, subscriptions, and mailing requests all without much human management. Computers can work much more efficiently than we can. Think of the list server as a dedicated program that monitors a mailbox for new mail. It then determines if incoming mail has a command associated with it or if it should be sent back to the subscribers of the list. Typically, the commands appear in the form of subscribe or unsubscribe requests. This automatically enables users to add or remove their e-mail address from a list. Other commands might include requests for specific documentation. Mailing lists are used everywhere as a common e-mail forum in which people to get help, share ideas, or, in some cases, just complain. And, yes, some mailing lists merely generate junk mail. Some e-mail claims to be from a mailing list when in fact it is just plain, old-fashioned spam (junk mail). The bottom of...

Maintaining the Server 455

Subscribing to a Profile . . . . . . . . . 589 Refreshing Configuration Information . . . . 593 Returning Managed Objects to Local Control 594 Setting Up Administrators for the Servers . . . 594 Handling Problems with Synchronization of Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Switching a Managed Server to a Different Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . 595 Deleting Subscribers from a Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 Renaming a Managed Server . . . . . . . 596 Performing Tasks on Multiple Servers . . . . . 596 Working with Multiple Servers Using the Administration Center . . . . . . . . . 596 Routing Commands . . . . . . . . . . 597 Setting Up Server Groups . . . . . . . . 599

Understanding the Linux Mystique

If you are intrigued by what you learn here, I'll tell you how you can become part of the open source and free software communities, whose stars are known by a single name (such as Linus) or a few initials (such as rms). You'll find a staggering number of open source projects, forums, and mailing lists that are thriving today (and always looking for more people to get involved).

Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 253

Finger Displays Information About Remote Users 374 Sending Mail to a Remote User 375 Mailing List Servers 376 Network Utilities 376 Trusted Hosts 376 OpenSSH Tools 377 telnet Logs In on a Remote System 377 ftp Transfers Files Over a Network 379 ping Tests a Network Connection 379 traceroute Traces a Route Over the Internet 380 host and dig Query Internet Nameservers 382 jwhois Looks Up Information About an Internet Site 382 Distributed Computing 383

Detecting and Configuring a Modem

More than 38 million users in the United States and another 85 million users around the world now connect to the Internet with cable or digital subscriber line (DSL) service, but for many users a modem is the standard way to connect with an Internet service provider (ISP) using the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). Other common tasks for modems include sending and receiving faxes. If you add or change your modem after the initial installation, you must configure Ubuntu to use the new modem to perform all these tasks.

Contact Mandrake community

In the philosophy of open-source, MandrakeSoft is offering many means of support ( en ffreesup.php3 ) for the Mandrake Linux distributions. You are invited in particular to participate in the various Mailing lists ( ), where the Mandrake Linux community demonstrates its vivacity and keenness.

Troubleshooting Post Installation Configuration Problems

Thanks to Google, troubleshooting is no longer the slow process it used to be. You can simply copy and paste error messages into Google and click Find to bring up a whole selection of results similar to the problem you face. Remember, Google is your friend, especially http linux, which provides a specialized search engine for Linux. You can also try http, which browses newsgroup and mailing list archives. Either way, you are likely to come across people who have had the same problem as you.

Broadbandand WANDevices

In2002,themost popular forms of broadband are Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems. DSL comes in several varieties, such as Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) and Single-Line (or Symmetric) DSL (SDSL), and operates using high-frequency signals over ordinary telephone lines. Cable modems operate over cable TV networks by occupying the bandwidth of one TV channel (often with some additional bandwidth reserved, as well). Broadband through satellite systems, local radio-frequency transmissions, and fiber-optic cabling are also available in at least some areas.

Figure 11 The OpenSUSEorg website lets you participate in the SUSE Linux development

On the site , you can learn more about the distribution. View official documentation, and read posted articles from the Novell website and elsewhere on the Web. View the roadmap for the next release, subscribe to the OpenSUSE discussion support mailing list, and peruse the FAQs. One of the more interesting aspects of is that it is a Wiki . This means that you and every other user of the page can

Community Support and Information

Shines, hosting mailing lists, blogs, and interactive forums that are all excellent sources of up-to-date information about Ubuntu. Forums and mailing lists enable you to post specific questions and receive responses from other Ubuntu users who have already solved the issue that you're experiencing. These online resources also serve as excellent feeder sites for the Ubuntu project, helping the project identify issues and common problems that should be addressed in future Ubuntu releases. Forums are the latest generation of what used to be known as bulletin board systems, and are an attractive alternative to mailing lists if you have the time to visit the Web site that hosts them. Ubuntu's forums are hosted at . This site provides a huge selection of well-organized forums that you can easily search to find specific information, where you can post questions, or where you can simply chat with or see the posts of other Ubuntu users, dipping your toe into the waters of...

Where to Get Red Hat Linux

Try looking on the CD-ROM that came with this book. Red Hat Linux is there. You can also get Red Hat from the Internet by pointing your browser to Here you will not only find Red Hat for each of the three supported platforms (Intel, Alpha, and SPARC), but also upgrades, updates, answers to frequently asked questions, mailing lists, and much, much more. You can call Red Hat at (888) RED-HAT1 and order products as well.

Ubuntu Help and Documentation

A great deal of help and documentation is available online for Ubuntu, ranging from detailed install procedures to beginners questions (see Table 1-3). The two major sites for documentation are https and the Ubuntu forums at In addition, you can consult many blog and news sites as well as the standard Linux documentation. Also helpful is the Ubuntu Guide Wiki at http Links to Ubuntu documentation, support, blogs, and news are listed at community. Here you will also find links for the Ubuntu community structure, including the code of conduct. A Contribute section links to sites where you can make contributions in development, artwork, documentation, and support. For mailing lists, check http You'll find lists for categories such as Ubuntu announcements, community support for specific editions, and development for areas such as the desktop, servers, or mobile implementation. Ubuntu mailing lists

ISDN and ADSL Connections

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is now the normal way for home users to get a broadband connection over a telephone line. ADSL providers normally offer an Ethernet router that connects to the telephone socket. An Ethernet network cable is used to connect the computer to the router. This method will always work perfectly with Linux. The network card should be set up to use DHCP, and the ADSL router will do the rest.

Joining Linux communities

Communities of professionals and enthusiasts have grown around Linux and its related open source projects. Many have shown themselves willing to devote their time, knowledge, and skills on public mailing lists, forums, Wikis, and other Internet venues (provided you ask politely and aren't too annoying). Free online forums have sprung up to get information on specific Linux topics. Popular general Linux forums are available from and Most major Linux distributions have associated mailing lists and forums. You can go directly to the Web sites for the Red Hat-sponsored Fedora Linux (http ), Debian (, Ubuntu (http, Gentoo (, and others to learn how to participate in forums and contribute to those projects.

Primary Advantages of Linux

Another advantage of using Linux is that help is always available on the Internet. There is probably someone out there in a Linux newsgroup or mailing list willing to help you get around your problem. Because the source code is available, if you need something fixed you can even patch the code yourself On the other hand, I've seen commercial operating system vendors sit on reported problems for months without fixing them. Remember that the culture of Linux is one that thrives on people helping other people.

CableDSL and Wireless Networks

If you have high-speed Internet access through cable modem or DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), you can easily hook up an Ethernet-equipped Linux PC to the Internet. For the most part, the configuration of the Linux PC is the same as that for TCP IP networking. However, for ISPs that use PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE), you may have to do some additional configuring. Linux includes support for PPPoE.

More Than Webbed Feet

These days, average home computer users spend more time surfing the Web and writ-ng email messages than doing just about anything else. Even if you're not much of a surfer, there are still numerous other applications that aren't really Internet applications per se but that still

Ubuntu Developers and Documentation

Mailing lists are also available as an outlet or forum for discussions about Ubuntu. The lists are categorized. For example, general users of Ubuntu discuss issues on the ubuntu-users mailing list. Beta testers and developers via the ubuntu-devel, and documentation contributors via the ubuntu-doc mailing list. You can subscribe to mailing lists by selecting the ones you are interested in at Be warned, some of the mailing lists have in excess of 200 to 300 emails per day

The Linux Kernel Development Community

When you begin developing code for the Linux kernel, you become a part of the global kernel development community. The main forum for this community is the Linux kernel mailing list. Subscription information is available at http Note that this is a high-traffic list with upwards of 300 messages a day and that the other readerswhich include all the core kernel developers, including Linusare not open to dealing with nonsense. The list is, however, a priceless aid during development because it is where you will find testers, receive peer review, and ask questions.

Participate In The Ubuntu Community

The community is organized in part through Launchpad, Canonical's platform for hosting open source projects, bug tracking, and more. Bug reports include feature requests and problems that are fixed by the community of developers. Documentation is constantly evolving through the Ubuntu Wiki. The power of the community is harnessed through channels such as mailing lists, IRC (Internet Relay Chat) chat rooms, and message boards.

The Official Printed Version

In Autumn 1993, Andy Oram, who had been around the LDP mailing list from almost the very beginning, asked Olaf about publishing this book at O'Reilly & Associates. He was excited about this book, never having imagined that it would become this successful. He and Andy finally agreed that O'Reilly would produce an enhanced Official Printed Version of the Networking Guide, while Olaf retained the original copyright so that the source of the book could be freely distributed. This means that you can choose freely you can get the various free forms of the document from your nearest Linux Documentation Project mirror site and print it out, or you can purchase the official printed version from O'Reilly.

Meljoshua linux2422 make bzImage make modules

Open source projects will usually have a home page, especially because free project hosting sites such as http are available. The home site will contain links to available documentation and instructions on how to join the mailing list, if one is available. Some sort of documentation always exists, even if it is as minimal as a simple README file, so read whatever is available. If the project is old and reasonably large, the Web site will probably feature a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) page. Next, join the development mailing list and lurk, which means to subscribe to a mailing list and read it without posting. Mailing lists are the preferred form of developer communication followed by, to a lesser extent, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and online newgroups, commonly referred to as UseNet. Because mailing lists often contain discussions on implementation details, it is important to read at least the previous months archives to get a feel for the developer community...

Network Interface Cards

The Tulip chips are considered by many to be the best choice for a PCI-based ethernet card on a Linux system. They are fairly inexpensive, fast, reliable, and documented. There have been some problems lately, however. There have been frequent, often slightly incompatible, revisions to newer chips. The older chips, which were a safer choice, were discontinued (this is being reversed) and the line was sold to competitor Intel, and there was a shortage of cards. Many of these problems may be corrected by the time this book is released, however check the Tulip mailing list archives for more details. If you need multiple ethernet interfaces in a single machine, Adaptec Quartet cards provide four Tulip-based ethernet ports on a single machine. One of my Web pages gives more information on using the Quartets under Linux.

Ubuntu Community Resources

In addition to Launchpad, five categories of community help are associated with the Ubuntu project mailing lists, IRC-based chat rooms, message boards, community-contributed documentation, and LoCo groups. Be aware that traffic on the main Ubuntu mailing lists can seem overwhelming, but this is a positive indicator of a large and active community. Chat rooms and message boards dedicated to various Ubuntu topics are also available for those who prefer that mode of communication. Mailing Lists To subscribe to an Ubuntu mailing list, navigate to https , select a list, and sign up using your e-mail address. Some Ubuntu mailing lists require moderator approval. As described in Table 1-6, mailing lists are available in 12 different categories. As of this writing, nearly 300 different Ubuntu mailing lists are available. Mailing List Category Basic community support mailing lists, divided by derivative (Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Edubuntu, Ubuntu Studio, Xubuntu, and Launchpad) Table...

NOTE I subscribe to several Ubuntu lists in digest mode which groups messages together before sending them to my email

One venue that can sometimes connect users who provide real-time help is the IRC-based discussion area. The Ubuntu chat rooms are often crowded with dozens of users and more, so be focused and polite with your questions. If you don't get the response you need, it's possible that the problem is more suited to a mailing list or message board-type discussion. As of this writing, Launchpad accounts aren't recognized on Ubuntu message boards, so before posting, you'll have to register separately at http register .php. Whether you use a message board or a mailing list is often a matter of personal taste or where you get the best answer. LoCo teams are available in a substantial number of countries and in most US states. The web page at https LoCoTeamList displays currently approved LoCo teams, mailing lists, IRC channels, message boards (forums), and websites. Some have declared that they also provide local support.

Configuring Your Network Access

Your default gateway address is the IP address of the host to which TCP IP packets that are not destined for your local network are sent for further processing. For example, your gateway address will be that of your asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) router if that is how you connect to the Internet. In other cases, your network or system administrator will be able to provide you with this information.

Broadband Networking Versus Local Area Networking

For the purposes of this book, the term broadband is used synonymously with the term wide area network (WAN). In both the popular press and the engineering press, the term broadband is generally used to differentiate the slower POTS-based dial-up line from a faster digital subscriber line (DSL) or cable modem. There is one important differentiating factor between local area networks (LANs) and WANs. Every machine on a LAN can see every other machine. However, on WANs, the connections are virtual circuits. They are set up either specifically as point-to-point connections between two machines or as multicast connections of one-to-many. LANs and WANs can also be differentiated by the role played by the data link layer of the OSI model. Chapter 2 contains a discussion of the OSI model, and Chapter 3 shows how the OSI model fits in with the TCP IP protocol. The data link (DL) layer for a LAN worries about framing, transmission, and receiving. The data link layer for WANs is far more...

Conduct Goals and Code of Conduct

The CoC, which can be read in full in Appendix B, covers behavior as a member of the Ubuntu Community, in any forum, mailing list, wiki, Web site, IRC channel, install-fest, public meeting or private correspondence. The CoC goes into some degree of depth on a series of points that fall under the following headings

Vendor Sponsored Resources

The advantage of using one of these sites is that you have access to the Linux kernel and root file system that have been tested with the board and at the same time have access to a group of engineers who are working with the same hardware and software platform, because most vendor sites include a mailing list or web-based forum for support. Depending on the enlightenment of the hardware vendor

Configuring Network and Internet Connections

Note that the SUSE Firewall is turned on by default. This is a good thing, unless you are already protected by a hardware router, which is included with many Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) accounts, and in business network settings. Click Next to confirm the network settings.

Communicating with Users

You'd think all of that might be enough, but no. My boss said, You need to communicate more with the users, to tell them about what you're doing . I agreed with him. So I now produce a fortnightly emailed bulletin. It is longer and more formal than a typical email message, with headings and a table of contents. Most of the information in it is positive -- new software that we've installed, and updates on our program of systems improvements. I also include a brief greeting and a couple of witty quotations. Judging by the feedback I've received, this seems to be working remarkably well -- much better than the staff newsletter column.

Quality and reliability of code

Most programmers agree that the Linux kernel and most projects used in a Linux system fit this description of quality and reliability of their codebase. The reason is the open source development model (see note below), which invites many parties to contribute to projects, identify existing problems, debate possible solutions, and fix problems effectively. You can expect to run Linux for years unattended without problems, and people have effectively done so. You can also select which system components you want to install and which you would like to avoid. With the kernel, too, you can select which features you would like during build configuration. As a testament to the quality of the code making up the various Linux components, you can follow the various mailing lists and see how quickly problems are pointed out by the individuals maintaining the various components of the software or how quickly features are added. Few other OSes provide this level of quality and reliability.

Linux Hardware Documentation

Many resources are available to help you select the best hardware for Linux. Thousands of Linux gurus who might be willing to help are available online via mailing lists, IRC rooms, and message boards. They document their experiences on wikis and blogs. Perhaps the most authoritative source for hardware is still the Linux Documentation Project (LDP), a global effort to produce reliable documentation for all aspects of the Linux operating system, including hardware compatibility.

Contributing to the project

Probably the most significant form of contributing to the project is through constructive feedback. If you run into a problem and you have the time and means to investigate further, please do. If you think you have found a problem, do not hesitate to put your findings into a bug report (see chapter 10.6.5). You may be the first to stumble across a problem by helping to fix it, you are helping others to avoid the pitfalls. Alerting the maintainer to a problem and offering to help with narrowing it down goes a long way towards fixing it. The free software community depends on the continuous flow of feedback to maintain its progressive bearing. Alternatively, do not hesitate to participate in discussions on mailing lists and in discussion forums (see chapter 10.4). When developers need to make decisions, your input can help to improve a product. On the topic of mailing lists, an equally important domain for contribution to the project is the support of users in these forums. If you can...

Professional organisations

Belonging to a professional organisation can offer a number of benefits including recognition of your abilities, opportunities to talk with other people in jobs similar to yours and a variety of other benefits. Most professional organisations distribute newsletters hold conferences and many today have mailing lists and web sites. All of these can help you perform your job.

Introduction to Samba

This hour gives you an overview of what Samba is and what it does. In the past, I have received email messages from all types of people asking questions such as, Can Samba authenticate http connections to a Windows NT Server against the NIS+ password database on a Solaris 2.6 machine and Has Samba been ported to Windows NT This hour is designed to answer some of the questions that you might have about Samba, its capabilities, and its availability.

Selecting a Linux Distribution

If you mention which distribution you intend to use to a Linux advocate, be ready for an explanation of why a different distribution is better. On any Linux mailing list, friendly arguments called distro wars frequently occur one user mentions his distribution by name, and other members of the list feel compelled to compare that distribution with whatever they are currently using. The fact that these are e-mail lists usually prevents bloodshed.

How you can get involved

The Ubuntu community comprises of many individuals and teams who work on different aspects of Ubuntu. If you are a developer, you can participate in the core development, write new applications, package additional software and fix bugs. If you are an artist, you can add value to the look and feel and functionality of Ubuntu. You can also provide online support, write documentation, assist with training material, join Web forums and the mailing lists of Ubuntu. There are lots of ways to get involved

Installation Features

Since Red Hat is a commercial company, they are able to offer support to their user community. We discuss support options in Chapter 4, but for the purposes of comparison, Red Hat offers paid support, Web-based support including the archives of the various Red Hat mailing lists, and 90 days of e-mail support with the boxed distribution.

Free software and open source community

The free software and open source community is the basis of all Linux development and is the most important player in the embedded Linux arena. It is made up of all the developers who enhance, maintain, and support the various software components that make up a Linux system. There is no central authority within this group. Rather, there is a loosely tied group of independent individuals, each with his specialty. These folks can be found discussing technical issues on the mailing lists concerning them or at gatherings such as the Ottawa Linux Symposium. It would be hard to characterize these individuals as a homogeneous group, because they come from different backgrounds and have different affiliations. Mostly, though, they care a great deal about the technical quality of the software they produce. The quality and reliability of Linux, as discussed earlier, are a result of this level of care. Besides maintaining a presence on some mailing lists and participating in the advancement of...

Highbandwidth Connections

While connecting to the Internet using a dial-up modem is sufficient for activities such as checking e-mail or browsing the web, this technology is not exactly keeping pace with the content offered online. Web sites are offering richer content by the day - and file downloads are getting bigger and bigger. This is where high-bandwidth Internet connections come in. Even though ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), the predecessor of today's high-bandwidth solutions, enjoyed only a lukewarm response, Cable and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) modem-based solutions are becoming very popular in many countries. Their large bandwidth also means that several machines can now be connected to the Internet simultaneously. What this means is that we connect our single machine to either a Cable or DSL modem using an Ethernet cable. In the case of multiple machines, we connect these machines to a network router, which in turn is connected to the Cable or DSL modem.

Downloading the Samba Distribution

The standard Samba web sites have Samba documentation and tutorials, mailing-list archives, and the latest Samba news, as well as source and binary distributions of Samba. The download sites (sometimes called F T P sites) have only the source and binary distributions. Unless you specifically want an older version of the Samba server or are going to install a binary distribution, download the latest source distribution from the closest mirror site. This distribution is always named

Compiling and Installing Samba

If you encounter a problem when compiling, first check the Samba documentation to see if it is easily fixable. Another possibility is to search or post to the Samba mailing lists, which are given at the end of Chapter 12 and on the Samba home page. Most compilation issues are system-specific and almost always easy to overcome.

Configuring New Network Devices Manually

To configure DSL, you will need to provide login and password information for DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and ISDN. In other respects, DSL and ISDN connections operate much like a local area network (LAN), treating a host as an integrated part of a network. On Fedora, you can set up a DSL or ISDN connection. For DSL, a dialog box displays for entering your login name, your password, and the Ethernet interface your DSL modem is attached to. You will also need to enter the IP addresses for the DNS servers provided by your ISP. You can elect to have the connection automatically made up when your system starts up (depending upon your selected network profile).

Downloading and compiling Snort

Subscribing to the various Snort mailing lists is an easy way to keep up to date with the latest Snort news. The Snort-Announcements list is very low volume, typically limited to new software announcements. You can find a link to the mailing lists on the Web site. Software updates typically mean new software features, so check in on the Snort Users mailing list occasionally to see what's new, and what other people are having trouble with chances are you might be having the same problem.

Usenet Network Newsgroups

Usenet newsgroups act as a form of public bulletin board system. Any user can subscribe to individual newsgroups and send (or post) messages (called articles) to the newsgroup so that all the other subscribers of the newsgroup can read them. Some newsgroups include an administrator, who must approve each message before it is posted. These are called moderated newsgroups. Other newsgroups are open, allowing any subscribed member to post a message. When an article is posted to the newsgroup, it is transferred to all the other hosts in the news network.

Exploring the Desktop Components

Starts Konqueror Web browser and takes you to the help page of the openSUSE community http from where you can access various documentation resources, mailing lists, Web forums or chats with members of the openSUSE community. Find more information about accessing and using help resources (integrated with your system or on the Web) in Chapter 12, Help and Documentation (tStart-Up).

Preparing Source Code Patches

Like most of the GNU project's tools, patch is a robust, versatile, and powerful tool. It can read the standard normal and context format diffs, as well as the more compact unified format. patch also strips header and trailer lines from patches, enabling you to apply a patch straight from an email message or Usenet posting without performing any preparatory editing.

Patch Command Line Options

The fuzz factor (-F NUM or --fuzz NUM) sets the maximum number of lines patch will ignore when trying to locate the correct place to apply a patch. It defaults to 2, and cannot be more than the number of context lines provided with the diff. Similarly, if you are applying a patch pulled from an email message or a Usenet post, the mail or news client may change spaces into tabs or tabs into spaces. If so, and you are having trouble applying the patch, use patch's -l or --ignore-white-space option.

Version Numbers and Development Methods

For the Beowulf user, this situation means that getting help with kernel issues may involve some investigation. Generally, the distribution companies support their product, or you can purchase support from a company such as LinuxCare. However, that does not mean they wrote the code or are on a first-name basis with the person who did. The commercial support company can certainly provide frontline support, but what the industry often calls level-3 support requires some extra work. Generally, open source programmers such as Donald Becker make a portion of their time available to answer questions about the code they authored. However, the author of the code could also have moved on to other endeavors, leaving the source code behind. Kernel and Beowulf mailing lists help, but the burden can often be on you to find the problem or find the person who can help you. When trying to track down what you believe to be a kernel or driver issue, please follow these guidelines 4. Read the relevant...

Installing host support packages

The LTIB project is hosted on a site that's the GNU equivalent of SourceForge. It has mailing lists (and archives) and a bug-tracking system. The mailing list is more heavily trafficked than the bug-tracking system, so a mailing list posting is the fastest way to get help. To subscribe to the mailing list, visit the page This page has a link to the mailing-list archives so you can see if another user has posted a similar question.

Major Software Projects

Many of the major pieces of software you might use on your SUSE system provide a wealth of information at the home pages for these software projects, in the form of documentation, mailing lists, and so on. Any time that you are going to be using a particular piece of software extensively, it pays to check on the project's web site for the latest information on that software. Some key software projects to check out include

The K Desktop Environment KDE

KDE was initiated by Matthias Ettrich in October 1996, and it has an extensive list of sponsors, including SuSE, Caldera, Red Hat, O'Reilly, DLD, Delix, Live, Linux Verband, and others. KDE is designed to run on any Unix implementation, including Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and FreeBSD. The official KDE Web site is, which provides news updates, download links, and documentation. KDE software packages can be downloaded from the KDE FTP site at and its mirror sites. Several KDE mailing lists are available for users and developers, including announcements, administration, and other topics. See the KDE Web site to subscribe. A great many software applications are currently available for KDE at Development support and documentation can be obtained at Various KDE Web sites are listed in Table 9-1. KDE mailing lists

Additional Sources of Information About Evolution

Because the Evolution application is generally very popular and is the default e-mail application on most GNOME-based systems (such as Ubuntu), there are a good number of Web sites that can provide you with additional information about using Evolution, as well as mailing lists that you can join to ask questions, file problem reports, and so on. Some of my favorites are as follows

Table 54 Locations of Critical Open Embedded Build Componentsn File or Directory Contents

The OpenEmbedded project has several mailing lists that you can view at If you're trying to use OpenEmbedded to build a distribution, the 0penembedded-users list is the most appropriate mailing list for questions. OpenEmbedded also keeps an archive of messages, using a nice forum-style manager to keep them organized. If you prefer Internet Relay Chat (IRC), the project has several channels at freenode a complete list is at http wiki. 0penembedded .net index.php IRC. Like mailing lists, the OpenEmbedded project keeps a log of the IRC traffic.

Evolution Forums httpnabblecomGnome Evolutionf1297html If you

Prefer to use a forum interface instead of a mailing list, Nabble provides a great collection of forums that present the various Evolution mailing lists in a user-friendly forum format. Messages posted to these forums go directly to the associated mailing list. Evolution Mailing Lists You can subscribe to a general mailing list for Evolution users (known as the evolution-list catchy, no ) at http mailman listinfo evolution-list, and you can also subscribe to a more advanced Evolution hackers list (evolution-hackers) at For general information about all GNOME-related mailing lists, see http mail. mailman listinfo .

Running Open Source Linux Games

Discussions on the fedora-games-list mailing list provide insights into why some games are difficult to package for Fedora and why some games can't get into Fedora because they don't meet the licensing requirements. Discussion relating to whether or not to include Doom first-person-shooter game in Fedora, for example, was an interesting example of how licensing issues are addressed. Although the Doom engine is freely distributable, there are clauses in the Doom license that prevent people from modifying, disassembling, or reverse engineering the software. For that reason, the Fedora project decided to include the prboom open source Doom clone and the freedoom doom data files.

Connecting a Single Computer to Broadband

The equipment you need to make broadband connections from your home or small office is typically a cable modem or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem. Cable modems share the bandwidth of the cable television line coming into your location. DSL uses existing house or office phone wires to connect to the Internet, sharing the wires with your phone service.

Using Folders to Organize Your Mail

Filters enable Kontact's e-mail application to automatically analyze incoming e-mail and process it in different ways based on portions of its content. By default, Kontact enables you to create filters based on the mail's recipient (the To field in the mail header), from the mail's sender (the From field in the mail header), or the subject of the e-mail (the Subject field in the mail header). Kontact can also detect mail that is sent to a mailing list (to which you are presumably a subscriber), and supports filtering based on the generic To field for such messages. You can create filters in one of two ways either by right-clicking on a message that is an example of a message that you want to filter or by selecting the Message O Create Filter menu command. Selecting either of these displays a secondary menu from which you can select Filter on Subject, Filter on From, Filter on To, or Filter on Mailing List to create a filter based on the associated field. After you select any of these,...

Using Filters to Process Incoming Mail

This adds an empty filter action, which you can configure by clicking on that action and selecting an action from the drop-down list. This list includes items such as Move Into Folder, Copy Into Folder, Mark As, Forward To, Confirm Delivery, Play Sound, and so on. Selecting any of these displays another drop-down, from which you can select or specify the target of the selected action. For example, when filing mail based on a mailing list, a common action is to mark the message as being read, which you can do by selecting the Mark As action. A drop-down list of available status types displays to the right of this action, from which you can select Read.

KDE Desktop Operations

Text you copy from one application is held in a desktop clipboard so that you can paste to another application. You can even copy and paste from a KConsole window. For example, you can copy a Web address from a Web page and then paste it into an email message or a word processing document. This feature is supported by the Klipper utility located on the Kicker panel.

Deciding How to Connect to the Internet

1 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Your local telephone company, as well as other telecommunications companies, may offer DSL. DSL provides a way to send high-speed digital data over a regular phone line. Typically, DSL offers data-transfer rates of between 128 Kbps and 1.5 Mbps. You can download from the Internet at much higher rates than when you send data from your PC to the Internet (upload). One caveat with DSL is that your home must be between 12,000 and 15,000 feet from your local central office (the phone-company facility where your phone lines end up). The distance limitation varies from provider to provider. In the United States, you can check out the distance limits for many providers at distance.

Connecting to the Internet with DSL

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) uses your existing phone line to send digital data in addition to the normal analog voice signals (analog means continuously varying, whereas digital data is represented by 1s and 0s). The phone line goes from your home to a central office where the line connects to the phone company's network by the way, the connection from your home to the central office is called the local loop. When you sign up for DSL service, the phone company hooks up your phone line to some special equipment at the central office. That equipment can separate the digital data from voice. From then on, your phone line can carry digital data that is then directly sent to an Internet connection at the central office.

Experimental PDC Support

Note - This is so important that I will say it again. There is no currently distributed version of Samba (this includes version 2.0) containing PDC functionality for Windows NT Domains that is officially supported. Unofficial support comes in the form of a mailing list (samba-ntdom devoted to debugging and testing the code.

Sharutils Version 42 221K

The sharutils package contains the GNU shar utilities, a set of tools for encoding and decoding packages of files (in binary or text format) in a special plain text format called shell archives (shar). This format can be sent through email (which can be problematic for regular binary files). The shar utility supports a wide range of capabilities (compressing, uuencoding, splitting long files for multi-part mailings, providing checksums), which make it very flexible at creating shar files. After the files have been sent, the unshar tool scans mail messages looking for shar files. Unshar automatically strips off mail headers and introductory text and then unpacks the shar files. Install sharutils if you send binary files through email very often.

Securing an Individual Server

You don't have to look hard to find that someone has discovered yet another new and exciting way to break into your systems. Sites such as http and mailing lists such as BugTraq regularly announce such new exploits. And making the situation even more troublesome for system administrators is the proliferation of script kiddies. These individuals do not themselves possess the technical knowledge to break into other sites they use prebuilt scripts instead, motivated by the adolescent thrill of impressing friends and being a nuisance. The positive result of this behavior is that the Linux community has become very responsive to security issues that come up. In several cases, security patches have been made available within 24 hours of the announcement of a vulnerability. You don't have to be a Red Hat Network subscriber or use the up2date command to keep your system up to date. Instead, you can track Red Hat Linux 8.0 security updates from Red Hat's web site at...

Finding Helpful Resources Online

As with TCP IP, substantially more security information is available than I can cover in this module. The best way to go about keeping yourself and your system up to snuff is to regularly visit web sites that discuss such matters and join mailing lists that make regular announcements of developments in this area. At the very least, you'll want to join the CERT mailing list or subscribe to the .announce newsgroup that's where moderated announcements from CERT are sent. You'll rarely ever see more than one or two announcements a month, so don't worry about getting your already full mailbox crammed with even more stuff Another good source of general system information is the BugTraq mailing list. This list gets regular traffic, but because it is moderated, you don't have to worry about useless flame wars consuming your mailbox. The discussions aren't specifically about security, but rather about serious bugs that affect all types of systems. As a systems administrator,...

Choosing a Web Browser

You should know, however, that several browsers are available to you in SUSE Linux. All are under active development and are more secure than Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE). Many folks involved in computer security have urged users to switch from IE, but here's the kicker. In June 2004, the U.S. Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) issued this recommendation (which is still active at press time) There are a number of significant vulnerabilities in technologies relating to the IE domain zone security model, local file system (Local Machine Zone) trust, the Dynamic HTML (DHTML) document object model (in particular, proprietary DHTML features), the HTML Help system, MIME type determination, the graphical user interface (GUI), and ActiveX. It is possible to reduce exposure to these vulnerabilities by using a different web browser, especially when viewing untrusted HTML documents (e.g., web sites, HTML email messages). (http vuls id 713878)

Direct Internet connections

By direct Internet connection, I'm referring to the typical setup for a home user connecting one machine directly to the Internet via digital subscriber line (DSL) or a cable modem. Broadband connections such as DSL and cable are very simple to set up as a direct connection to a Linux computer. You need an active working connection to either a DSL or a cable Internet provider, a broadband modem, a patch cable, and your computer with an installed network interface card (NIC). You should have an instruction manual, replete with graphics, to show you how to connect your DSL cable modem to your computer physically. Those instructions are operating-system independent, so they should guide you through connecting your Linux machine just fine. A word of caution here You may be on your own setting up your Linux computer for DSL cable access because few, if any, communications-support personnel can or will assist you, so pay close attention to this and Chapter 19.

Cvs d pservercvscvssambaorgcvsroot login

When the CVS client source code has completed downloading the source tree, you can compile Samba using the same methods used for version 2.0 (see Hour 3, Obtaining the Latest Source ). Sorry, but for obvious reasons, there are no binary distributions of this. Because this is development code, the compile process might not be as clean and error free as when you are compiling a distributed, stable version of Samba. By this, I mean that you might see more warning messages or you might experience problems compiling for your platform. Make sure that you report any problems via email to samba-bugs Also join the samba-ntdom mailing list to watch for updates, fixes, and changes.

Objective 4 GNU Privacy Guard GPG

Even if you secure the transmission of the email between server and client, this has no effect on the mail message itself. The communication between mail servers in the Internet is unencrypted, as is the email message while it is waiting on the mail server to be picked up. The only protection from government organizations, nosy administrators, or criminal hackers is to encrypt the email message itself. This is not an imaginary threat. In the past there were actual instances where mail got into the wrong hands with serious impact on a business, like losing a potential contract because the competitor was then able to make a better offer.

Using the Address Book

The address book in Evolution provides a great place to keep contact information for all your personal and business needs. The Evolution email program can access the address book to add recipients of email messages. The Contact Editor is a great tool for organizing all of your contact information, plus it makes that information readily available when you create email messages.

Selecting an Internet Service Provider ISP

Because of the meteoric rise in the popularity of Linux, many ISPs are training their support staff in the ways of Linux. If you already have a dial-up service, give one of them a call to let them know of your Linux pursuits. Chances are, that person already has information pertinent to Linux subscribers and can provide you with that information. If you're shopping for a new ISP, this section offers some practical selection advice. 1 Will you have trouble dialing in Although a subscriber-to-line ratio of 7-to-1 (an average of seven or fewer subscribers per line) or better isn't an entirely accurate measure of how often you'll get busy signals, it's probably the easiest measure for consumers.

Networking and the Internet

The Internet is a loosely administered network of networks (an internetwork) that links computers on diverse LANs around the globe. An internet (small i) is a generic network of networks that may share some parts in common with the public Internet. It is the Internet that makes it possible to send an email message to a colleague thousands of miles away and receive a reply within minutes. A related term, intranet, refers to the networking infrastructure within a company or other institution. Intranets are usually private access to them from external networks may be limited and carefully controlled, typically using firewalls (page 349).

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