Booting from the Hard Disk with Special Boot Parameters

To solve some problems, it is enough to boot the system from hard disk, but into runlevel 1 (by simply typing the digit 1 as a boot parameter in the initial boot screen). Runlevel 1 is single-user mode, with no networking and without starting most services. So if there is a problem that is causing the boot process to fail at a later stage, you may be able to solve the problem by booting into runlevel 1 and making the necessary changes. You can run YaST or edit configuration files in this state, and then reboot or bring the system up to runlevel 3 or 5 with one of the commands i nit 3 or i nit 5.

This could be the right approach if, for example, one of the system start scripts was failing when entering runlevel 3 because of a bad configuration file.

Chapter 4 has more information on booting into specific runlevels.

If you have lost the root password, you can boot with the following parameter: init=/bin/bash rw

To do this, you simply need to type init = /bin/bash rw in the "Boot Options'' field on the initial GRUB boot screen that you see as the system starts to boot.

This starts the system but bypasses the normal i nit system. It replaces the normal i nit program with the bash shell, so instead of booting the system normally, it takes you straight to a shell, logged in as root, without the need to log in, and mounting the root partition read-write. (Other partitions may not be mounted when the system is in this state.)

The passwd command should be available to you. You can simply run passwd to change the root password. Type sync to be quite sure that the change has been written to disk, and reboot.

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