Depending on the type of filesystem you are using, you can pass mount options that impact the way the filesystem is used. These are functional parameters that change the way that the filesystem works or that provide optimizations for specific scenarios.
This section provides an overview of the most significant mount options that are available for the EXT2/EXT3 and ReiserFS filesystems, as well as a discussion of some general mount options that can be useful regardless of the type of filesystem that you are using. The online man page for the mount command provides complete information about all of the general and filesystem-specific options that are supported by the mount command.
As discussed earlier in the chapter, the EXT2 and EXT3 filesystems share the same basic data structures and differ largely only in terms of whether a journal is present (and the journaling option is enabled in the filesystem superblock). For this reason, they also share a large list of mount options that can be used with either. Of these shared mount options, the most significant is the sb option, which enables you to specify an alternate superblock to use when checking the consistency of the filesystem using the fsck utility.
As shown earlier in Listings 3-6 and 3-7, a number of backup superblocks are created when an EXT2 or EXT3 filesystem is created. A superblock is the cornerstone of a Linux filesystem and provides key information about a filesystem such as the number of free inodes, a pointer to the list of free blocks, and various attributes that specify the configuration of that particular filesystem. The size of a filesystem determines the number of backup superblocks created by the mkfs.ext2 or mkfs.ext3 utilities when you created the filesystem.
Backup superblocks are useful when the primary superblock for a filesystem (generally the first 512 bytes of the filesystem) has become corrupted or otherwise damaged. If a filesystem's primary superblock has become corrupted, you must specify an alternate superblock to use when checking the filesystem's consistency using fsck, and then again when you mount the filesystem. The mount option sb=n tells the mount command to use block n as superblock instead of block 1. The block number must be supplied in terms of 1K units. Therefore, to use logical block 32768 as a replacement superblock on a filesystem that uses 4K blocks, you specify the mount option
As an example, the following mount command mounts the partition /dev/hda5 on the directory /mint as an EXT2 filesystem using the alternate superblock at block address 8193:
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