PDF is related to PostScript and is also a fully documented format from Adobe. The application of choice for opening PDF has to be Adobe Acrobat Reader, acroread, but there are also xpdf kpdf and evince. The kghostview application also happily opens PDF files. However, acroread best takes advantage of all the advanced features of PDF (hyperlinks, text search, forms, and so on).
Again, a large number of utilities are available for dealing with PDF files, in particular pdfto-text and pdf2ps, which try to do what their names imply.
A DVI file is a device-independent file and usually has the file extension .dvi. The DVI format is almost exclusively seen as the output of the TeX and LaTeX typesetting programs. This is now seen as an intermediate stage in the production of PostScript; the program dvips converts a DVI file to PostScript. However, you can view DVI files directly, using xdvi or kdvi. (You may have to wait a surprisingly long time while the necessary fonts are generated.)
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