The DoD Model

In reality, the TCP/IP standard does not adhere 100 percent to the OSI model. As we said, the model is only a reference guide, and protocols do not have to follow it exactly. The TCP/IP model fits more closely to the DoD (Department of Defense) model of a network protocol shown in Figure 6-2. TCP/IP is not as abstracted as the OSI model, and many of the components fit into the DoD model. For example, the TCP/IP application usually takes care of the format of the data that is sent and also the creation of a TCP/IP session.

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