Tr

The tr command replaces (or deletes) individual characters from its input and passes the result to its output. For example, if you wanted to replace lowercase e with uppercase E, or all lowercase letters with uppercase letters, you could use the following command lines:

[email protected]:~ > cat file red elephant, red wine blue mango red albatross [email protected]:~ > cat file|tr e E rEd ElEphant, rEd winE bluE mango rEd albatross [email protected]:~ > cat file|tr a-z A-Z RED ELEPHANT, RED WINE BLUE MANGO RED ALBATROSS

However, for this example, it is probably better to do the following:

[email protected]:~ > cat file | tr [:lower:] [:upper:]

This has the same effect as the previous example, but does the right thing if we include accented characters in our file. For example:

[email protected]:~ > echo 'éléphant' |tr a-z A-Z éLéPHANT

[email protected]:~ > echo 'éléphant' |tr [:lower:] [:upper:] ÉLÉPHANT

[email protected]:~ > cat file |tr a-z mnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijkl dqp qxqbtmzf, dqp iuzq nxgq ymzsa dqp mxnmfdaee

Here, the tr command performs the simple rot13 cipher on the lowercase letters — each letter is moved forward 13 places in the alphabet. Repeating the command restores the original text.

With the option -d, tr simply removes the characters that are listed:

[email protected]:~ > cat file | tr -d abcde r Iphnt, r win lu mngo r Itross

With the option -s, tr removes repeats of the characters that are listed:

[email protected]:~ > cat repeats aaabcd abbbcd abcccd abcddd [email protected]:~ > cat repeats|tr -s ab abcd abcd abcccd abcddd

Repeated a's and b's have been lost.

| f - - r Exactly how the range of characters in the preceding examples is interpreted may depend on the locale, in other words the language settings in the current environment.

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