Network Stacks

The basic goal of networking, from the point of view of high-level software, is to transfer information from a specific program running on one computer to a specific program running on another computer. For instance, when you run a Web browser such as Netscape, the goal is to transmit a request for specific documents from Netscape Navigator to a Web server program (such as Apache) on a remote computer. Apache responds by returning one or more documents to Navigator. This process of exchanges...

Available Desktop Environments

The two most common desktop environments available on Linux are the GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) and the K Desktop Environment (KDE). There are also several less used desktop environments available. Brief descriptions of these environments follow GNOME GNOME is built atop the GTK widget set, which was originally developed for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) graphics utility. Since version 1.2, GNOME has used Sawfish as the default window manager (GNOME 1.4.0.6 is...

Process Oriented Commands

The commands in this section are used to control processes and are all pretty common. We will look at processes in Chapter 7. The ps print status command gives the status of the current processes. The process list may be filtered or the output format may be changed by specifying related options. The pstree command displays a tree of processes with the root at the specified PID or at init if no PID is specified. The halt command annotates the var log wtmp file that the system is being rebooted...