For 2.0.x kernels, the following options apply. You should see these options during the kernel configuration process. Many of the comments here are from
./linux/Documentation/Configure.help, which is the same document that is referenced while using the Help facility during the make config stage of compiling the kernel.
Network Firewalls (CONFIG_FIREWALL)
This option should be on if you intend to run any firewalling or masquerading on your Linux machine. If it's just going to be a regular client machine, it's safe to say no.
IP: forwarding/gatewaying (CONFIG_IP_FORWARD)
If you enable IP forwarding, your Linux box essentially becomes a router. If your machine is on a network, you could be forwarding data from one network to another, and perhaps subverting a firewall that was put there to prevent this from happening. Normal dial-up users will want to disable this, and other users should concentrate on the security implications of doing this. Firewall machines will want this enabled, and used in conjunction with firewall software.
You can enable IP forwarding dynamically using the following command:
root# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip forward and disable it with the command:
root# echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip forward
Keep in mind the files in /proc are "virtual" files and the shown size of the file might not reflect the data output from it.
IP: syn cookies (CONFIG_SYN_COOKIES)
a "SYN Attack" is a denial of service (DoS) attack that consumes all the resources on your machine, forcing you to reboot. We can't think of a reason you wouldn't normally enable this. In the 2.2.x kernel series this config option merely allows syn cookies, but does not enable them. To enable them, you have to do:
root# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp syncookies <P>
IP: Firewalling (CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL)
This option is necessary if you are going to configure your machine as a firewall, do masquerading, or wish to protect your dial-up workstation from someone entering via your PPP dial-up interface.
IP: firewall packet logging (CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL_VERBOSE)
This option gives you information about packets your firewall received, like sender, recipient, port, etc.
IP: Drop source routed frames (CONFIG_IP_NOSR)
This option should be enabled. Source routed frames contain the entire path to their destination inside of the packet. This means that routers through which the packet goes do not need to inspect it, and just forward it on. This could lead to data entering your system that may be a potential exploit.
IP: masquerading (CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE) If one of the computers on your local network for which your Linux box acts as a firewall wants to send something to the outside, your box can "masquerade" as that host, i.e., it forewords the traffic to the intended destination, but makes it look like it came from the firewall box itself. See http://www.indyramp.com/masq for more information.
IP: ICMP masquerading (CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_ICMP) This option adds ICMP masquerading to the previous option of only masquerading TCP or UDP traffic.
IP: transparent proxy support (CONFIG_IP_TRANSPARENT_PROXY) This enables your Linux firewall to transparently redirect any network traffic originating from the local network and destined for a remote host to a local server, called a "transparent proxy server". This makes the local computers think they are talking to the remote end, while in fact they are connected to the local proxy. See the IP-Masquerading HOWTO and http://www.indyramp.com/masq for more information.
IP: always defragment (CONFIG_IP_ALWAYS_DEFRAG)
Generally this option is disabled, but if you are building a firewall or a masquerading host, you will want to enable it. When data is sent from one host to another, it does not always get sent as a single packet of data, but rather it is fragmented into several pieces. The problem with this is that the port numbers are only stored in the first fragment. This means that someone can insert information into the remaining packets that isn't supposed to be there. It could also prevent a teardrop attack against an internal host that is not yet itself patched against it.
Packet Signatures (C ONFIG_NCPF S_PACKET_S IGNING)
This is an option that is available in the 2.2.x kernel series that will sign NCP packets for stronger security. Normally you can leave it off, but it is there if you do need it.
IP: Firewall packet netlink device (CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL_NETLINK)
This is a really neat option that allows you to analyze the first 128 bytes of the packets in a user-space program, to determine if you would like to accept or deny the packet, based on its validity.
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