Ubuntu 8.10 Reference

Ripping Audio CDs Using Rhythmbox on Ubuntu

Ripping CDs in Rhythmbox is almost exactly like playing them (as shown in Figure 19-25), with the exception of the fact that you click the Extract button rather than the Play button to start the process. While Rhythmbox is extracting the contents of an audio CD and converting each track to a file, it displays progress information in the lower-left corner of the Rhythmbox dialog. Before ripping a CD, however, you may want to specify the format of the audio files that Rhythmbox creates, the...

Adding SCSI Drives

SCSI drives have long been the traditional drive of choice for RAID boxes or in systems with 24x7 availability requirements. The primary reasons for this are high performance (SCSI drives are still faster than current SATA II drives), SCSI's traditional support for hot-swapping, and higher quality control (some manufacturers even offer longer warranties for SCSI drives for this reason). The downside is that SCSI drives are substantially more expensive than...

Test Drive Using Krita

Discussing every nuance of creating and editing images in Krita is beyond the scope of this book, and probably deserves its own book. However, to give you a feel for using Krita, this section provides an example of using Krita to import an SVG image (which will use the RGB colorspace by default), changing the image to use the CMYK colorspace, and then saving it as a TIFF file that would be suitable for sending to a commercial printer. TO jili SSff Although the grayscale screenshots in this book...

Photo Editing Overview

Although many of us probably still have envelopes stuffed with old holiday and vacation photographs that have been glued together by time and humidity, it's been a long time since I've had to deal with film. I'm probably showing my age by mentioning it at all. I have a few generations of digital cameras with increasing resolution, my cell phone has a camera, my laptop has a camera, and even a wristwatch that I bought during an eBay seizure a few years ago has one....

Overview of Digital Audio and Video Terminology

As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, digital audio and video is an area in which the computer industry's tendency towards using jargon and three-letter acronyms makes many conversations and reference information almost incomprehensible to the novice. Though I've been a record collector, CD collector, and musician for years, I still encounter terms that I either have to look up or decrypt, and there is no single source of this sort of terminology outside of all-encompassing sites...

Using Compiz with KDE

At present, I generally advise against using Compiz with KDE-based systems such as Kubuntu, primarily because KDE 4's enhancements to the KWin window manager provide much of the desktop functionality that Compiz does. However, if you're using KDE 3, it's possible (and fun) to run KDE 3 with Compiz, as explained in the rest of this section. Compiz is not installed by default on Kubuntu systems. You can install Compiz by using any of the package management software described in Chapter 23 to...

Instant Messaging Overview

Believe it or not, people were actually online even before the Internet. Bulletin-board systems (commonly referred to as BBSs) were a popular early personal computing phenomenon, consisting of computers running specialized, multi-user software that users could connect to using a modem, and on which users could read and send both public and private messages using a terminal-based interface. (Many BBS systems also supported inter-BBS e-mail by forwarding messages from one system to another using...

Troubleshooting DHCP

The most common cause of DHCP problems is that the server did not start correctly or has already handed out all of the leases that are available to it. By default, any startup, status, and error messages from a DHCP server are written to the log file var log messages. If your DHCP server does not start correctly, this file is the first place to look. If you have manually created your DHCP server's configuration file, missing semicolons or other syntax errors will cause the DHCP server to exit...

Exiting due to fatal error

In this case, you can see that there is a missing semicolon on line 60 of my named.conf file. After correcting one error in a configuration file, you usually want to check the configuration file again, to make sure that you've eliminated all of the errors, not just one. The Ubuntu bind package includes a utility called named-checkconf that does just this. Running this utility provides an easy way of checking the syntax of a BIND configuration file without restarting the named process over and...

Using a Scanner

Most modern scanners are USB devices and are well supported on Linux systems, as are older scanners that use a real SCSI interface. Scanners are supported on Linux systems through the SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) interface and associated front-end and back-end applications. The home of the SANE project is www.sane-project.org. If you are still shopping for a scanner or are interested whether support for a specific scanner is available under Linux, see the page at www.sane-project.org...

Freecell Solitaire

Freecell is a fairly popular card game thanks to its appearance in various versions of Microsoft Windows over the years. For me, one of the nicest things about the GNOME games version of Freecell is that it provides a Hint button that is always handy as a last resort. Implementation-wise, presenting this game as being standalone is a bit misleading, because this menu item just starts the AisleRiot Solitaire application but preloads a different card game. Tali is an online version of a dice game...

Video Games

Video games have probably gotten more kids interested in computers than any other motivator. After all, it's not surprising to see a video game in a bar or grow up staring at your PlayStation and find yourself thinking, I wish I could create something like that. This is a far more likely scenario than staring at a huge report in your father's or mother's briefcase and thinking, I wish I could write a program that would produce neat reports like that The GNOME games pack installed on Ubuntu...

Games on Kubuntu Systems

A tremendous number of free games are available for KDE-based distributions such as Kubuntu. Unlike GNOME-based Ubuntu systems, games are not installed on Kubuntu systems. To install them, you must use your favorite package management utility to install the kdegames package on KDE 3-based Kubuntu systems (i.e., Kubuntu 8.04 and earlier), or the kdegames-kde4 package on KDE 4-based Kubuntu systems (i.e., Kubuntu 8.10 and later). Installing these packages requires less than 50 MB of free disk...

The Init Process

After loading the kernel and mounting a runtime root filesystem, traditional UNIX and Linux systems execute a system application known as the init (initialization) process, which is typically found in sbin init on Linux systems. Typically, the init process is process number 1 on the system, as shown in a process status listing produced using the ps command, and it is therefore the ancestor of all other processes on your system. The traditional init binary used on most UNIX and Linux systems is...

Customizing Panels

As discussed earlier in the chapter, panels are regions on your desktop that are displayed by the gnome-panel application and provide access to various ways of interacting with the desktop and launching different types of applications. The gnome-panel application can display panels along any edge of the screen, but the default Ubuntu configuration displays panels at the top and bottom of the screen. A single instance of the gnome-panel application controls all of the panels that are displayed...

Using the Tracker Desktop Search Application

As disks and other local storage media get larger and larger, the amount of data that people save and keep around for an extended period of time gets equally large. Although this anecdote will date me, the first hard drive that I ever bought was a whopping 30MB and I remember thinking That should last a lifetime How can I ever fill that up It actually didn't take very long to fill the drive, and I remember having to clean up after myself frequently, writing files that I didn't really need to...

Searching with Tracker

The Tracker daemon, trackerd, is automatically started as part of each Ubuntu user's GNOME login session. By default, Tracker automatically searches and indexes all of the files in your home directory. Once Tracker completes its initial scan of your files and directories, you can search the Tracker index in one of four basic ways From the Tracker panel applet, which starts the Tracker Search Tool. From the tracker-search-tool application, which you can start from the command line, or by...

Using the Gnome Deskbar Applet

Deskbar applet, how do I love thee Let me count the ways. I love thee when I forget the name of the file in which I've stored the great American novel or my mother's recipe for dilly beans, or when I need to look up a word in a dictionary or thesaurus, or when I want to search the Web. And most of all, I love thee when I don't want to have to start specific applications for each of these different, but related, tasks. The Deskbar applet is a one-stop shopping applet for any search task that I...

Configuring Compiz Using Gnome Configuration Tools

On Ubuntu systems, Compiz, the Compiz plug-ins, and the Compiz Fusion plug-ins can be configured using the standard GNOME configuration utilities without requiring that you install any special tools. GNOME systems provide two primary configuration utilities for manipulating the GConf (GNOME Configuration Editor) repository gconftool-2, a command-line utility, and gconf-editor, a graphical application. You should run these utilities as yourself, without using sudo, because they manipulate GNOME...

In s xsession xinitrc

Experimenting with different window managers is fun because each represents someone's idea of how you should interact with a graphical system, start applications, and so on. I've been using the X Window system since version 10, and thus have burned more time than I could ever calculate in experimenting with, configuring, and customizing many of the window managers that have been written in the last 20+ years. But it's been fun. U j < -)n 'ow memory, low resource systems such as older laptops,...

How NFS Works

If you simply want to use NFS and aren't too concerned about what's going on under the hood, you can skip this section. However, this section provides the details of many internal NFS operations because some enquiring minds do indeed want to know and because, frankly, it's just plain interesting to see some of the hoops that NFS clients and servers have to use to successfully communicate between different types of computer systems, often with different types of processors. So, if you're...

The Boot Loader

Boot loaders typically consist of two stages a minimal first-stage boot loader and a more elegant, second-stage boot loader. The size of a first-stage boot loader is constrained by the size of the MBR on a storage device, which is a single sector (512 bytes). The first-stage boot loader, therefore, primarily contains enough information to locate and load the second-stage boot loader, which is where all the action is. As mentioned earlier, Linux offers two boot loaders, LiLo and GRUB. The LiLo...

BackupPC servers home page

Host Summary Edit Confiq Friit Hosts Admin Options LOG file Old LOG5 Email summary Current queues Documentation The servers PID is 7235, on host lap64.vonhagen.org, version 3.0.0, started at 10 15 21 4 3. This status was generated at 10 15 21 49. The configuration was last loaded at 10 15 21 43. PCs will be next queued at 10 15 22 00. O 0 pending backup requests from last scheduled wakeup, O Q pending user harkup requests, O O pending command requests, o poo is o.tHXits comprising files and...

Restoring from Backups in BackupPC

Thanks to BackupPC's Web orientation and the fact that its backups are stored online on the backup server, restoring files from BackupPC backups can be done online, by any authorized user whose name is associated with that host in the etc backuppc hosts file. BackupPC enables you to browse through online backups, interactively select the files and directories that you want to restore, and restore them in various ways. To begin restoring files or directories, click the name of the full or...

Using IRC in Pidgin

As discussed in the section Instant Messaging on Ubuntu with Pidgin, IRC is one of the messaging protocols that is built into Pidgin. Because most IRC servers are open, you can create an IRC account and connect to an IRC server without having to pre-register, but you must create a Pidgin account to do this. You create your Pidgin IRC account like any other account, by selecting the Accounts C> Manage menu option and selecting the IRC protocol, as shown in Figure 13-32. Your screen name is...

Figure 1741

The updated spreadsheet showing currency values The updated spreadsheet showing currency values Inwrt rQrmat Mt a Jooh Jpttlnqs Urip & J----- j z Si t SEJ * bd' - ' a M i s i J wi i PffiTii'lSSHff you 'lave a ex'st'n8 spreadsheets and are wondering how to transfer them to your new Ubuntu system, see Bonus Chapter 2, File Transfer and Sharing on Ubuntu, for detailed information on doing just that. Don't worry it's really quite easy to do using a network connection or even a traditional...

Evolution Forums httpnabblecomGnome Evolutionf1297html If you

Prefer to use a forum interface instead of a mailing list, Nabble provides a great collection of forums that present the various Evolution mailing lists in a user-friendly forum format. Messages posted to these forums go directly to the associated mailing list. Evolution IRC Channel If you're a fan of Internet Relay Chat and have a client handy (such as the XChat-GNOME IRC client that is provided with Ubuntu), you can discuss developing and using Evolution in the evolution channel on...

Using KWrite

KWrite is a small, fast text editor for Kubuntu that is also extremely customizable. On Kubuntu systems running KDE3.x systems, KWrite is provided in the same Kubuntu package as the more complex and powerful Kate editor (discussed in the next section), and is therefore installed by default on Kubuntu systems. (KWrite is also installed by default on Kubuntu systems running KDE 4.x, but is a standalone package there.) Figure 15-20 shows KWrite displaying the contents of this chapter as I was...

Playing Audio CDs with Amarok on Kubuntu

Once Amarok starts, it displays its startup screen and tries to look up your CD in the free online CD information database freedb.org, or at least claims to do so. If it finds a matching entry, it displays information about the CD and the tracks that it contains. However, I've never had much luck getting Amarok to actually retrieve this information for me on the latest KDE 3-based Kubuntu systems, although it does a good job of this on KDE 4-based Kubuntu systems. I typically don't worry about...

Defaults The default options async auto dev exec nouser rw and suid are used

Dev The character or block device containing the filesystem is local to the system. exec You can execute programs, scripts, or anything else whose permissions indicate that it is executable from that filesystem. gid value Set the group ID of the mounted filesystem to the specified numeric group ID when the filesystem is mounted. noauto Don't automatically mount when a filesystem is detected or when the command mount - a is issued. Usually used with removable media such as floppies and CD-ROMs....

Install Options on the Alternate Install CD

Figure 3-36 shows the menu that is displayed when you boot your system from an Ubuntu Alternate Install CD. For parity, Figure 3-37 shows the menu that is displayed when you boot your system from a Kubuntu 8.10 Alternate Install CD. The boot menu on the Ubuntu Alternate Install CD The boot menu on the Ubuntu Alternate Install CD The boot menu on the Kubuntu Alternate Install CD Check U'D for defects Test memory Boot from Jirst hard disfc Rnsrue a broken system Fl Ittlp F2 Language F3 Keycap F4...

Configuring NFS Kernel Server Options

Options for the common NFS services for an NFS server are set in the file etc default nfs-kernel-server, which you can edit using your favorite text editor. Each of the following options is defined in a setting that looks like setting value, where value is one of yes or no. The options that you should set are the following RPCNFSDCOUNT Set this to a specific numeric value to identify the number of NFS daemon instances that you want to start. The default value, 8, is usually sufficient, although...

Using Compositing in KWin

Compositing support in KWin is enabled by default in the Kubuntu 8.10 release. If for some reason it is not enabled on your system, this generally means that your graphics card is not powerful enough to support the additional memory requirements of compositing. If you do not believe that this is correct or you have installed a new graphics card recently, you can enable it manually and see if it works on your graphics hardware. To do so 1. Start the System Settings application and select the...

Bonus Chapters

Bonus Chapter 1 Connecting to Other Systems Bonus Chapter 7 Using Virtual Machines and Emulators Bonus Chapter 2 File Transfer and Sharing Bonus Chapter 8 Setting Up a Web Server Bonus Chapter 9 Setting Up a Mail Server Bonus Chapter 3 Software Development on Ubuntu and Kubuntu Bonus Chapter 10 Setting Up a DHCP Server Bonus Chapter 4 Managing Users, Groups, Authentication, and Advanced Permissions Bonus Chapter 11 Setting Up a DNS Server Bonus Chapter 12 Setting Up a Print Server Bonus Chapter...

P r jg You can also display this dialog without going through Konqueror by executing the kedit MKBSsfcQJiJ38SMH

Select the File menu's Import command to display the submenu shown in Figure 12-23, and select the appropriate command from this menu. The primary differences between these commands are the default location in which they expect to find bookmark files and the format of these files. I always select the Import Mozilla Bookmarks option because it enables you to select an HTML file to import and has always worked for me when importing bookmark files from different versions of Internet Explorer and...

Rpcinfo p 1921686143

This output shows that NFS versions 3 and 4 are both supported by the NFS server and the lock manager. In this case, the right services seem to be available on the server. You should also verify that the required processes are running on both the NFS server and the client system by using the ps command with your favorite options for listing system processes, as in the following example from an NFS 4 server An NFS 4 server should be running at least the rpc.idmapd, rpc.mountd, and nfsd...

Quick Tour of Krita

Like all KOffice tools, Krita provides excellent online help, so I won't bore you by walking through each menu and entry that it contains. However, as a quick overview of the Krita interface, the callouts in Figure 18-12 highlight the following areas Menus The drop-down menus in Krita are organized much like those in other drawing packages to provide a familiar user experience. Menu items with an arrow at their right edge lead to other, related submenus. Toolbars By default, Krita displays the...

Installing an NFS Server

You can use the Synaptic Package Manager, the Adept Package Manager, or the command-line package management utilities described in Chapter 23 to install the packages required to run and monitor an NFS server on your Ubuntu or Kubuntu system. You must install both the nfs-common and nfs-kernel-server packages on any system where you want to run an NFS server only the nfs-common package is required on a system on which you only want to mount NFS filesystems. (Installing the nfs-kernel-server...

Configuring an NFS Server

Older releases of Ubuntu provided a graphical tool called shares-admin that could be used on NFS servers that had a GUI to simplify the process of setting up the directories that were to be exported from that NFS server. This tool is no longer supported and, although it is still delivered with Ubuntu Hardy 8.04, should not be used it does not configure export entries for NFS 4 correctly. This section therefore focuses on configuring an NFS server from the command line because that method works...

Enabling Remote Hosts to Access Your CUPS Print Server

As distributed with most Linux distributions (including Ubuntu releases prior to 6.06), CUPS servers listen for incoming requests on port 631 of your host's external IP address. With Ubuntu 6.06 and later distributions, the CUPS server only listens for requests on your host's loopback interface, 127.0.0.1, which effectively eliminates any hope of network printing. Luckily, this is easy enough to correct. - p -. eg. To avoid having to put the complete documentation for the CUPS configuration...

Integrating Windows Printing with an Ubuntu Print Server

Configuring a Microsoft Windows 2000 or XP system to print to a remote Ubuntu printer is as simple as setting up access to any other shared network printer. The following example provides screenshots from a sample Windows XP system, but the process is very similar on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows 1. Select Start C Settings C Printers and Faxes. 2. Click the Add a Printer task. A hand-waving dialog displays that does nothing. Click Next to proceed. 3. Specify that you want to create a...

Installing Microsoft Windows Drivers

This section explains how to install Microsoft Windows drivers using the graphical ndisgtk utility, which (if you'll pardon the expression) puts a friendly wrapper around the ndiswrapper utilities, kernel module, and Ubuntu network configuration. You can also install Windows drivers for use with the ndiswrapper kernel module by using the command sudo ndiswrapper -i name-of-INF-file from any command-line environment, and then manually modifying some configuration files, but I prefer the...

Linux and UNIX Printing History

Today's printers are typically high-quality laser or inkjet printers, often capable of color printing and near photographic quality. The original UNIX printing system, known as Line Printer Daemon (LPD) was designed to queue and print jobs that were intended for huge, text-only line printers. As more sophisticated printers were developed that were capable of higher-quality printouts (such as the original Xerox x9700, Canon-CX, and Imagen-300 laser printers), the original LPD print system...

Overview of BIND Configuration Files

The etc nsswitch.conf and etc resolv.conf files reflect your system's general approach to resolving hostname and IP address queries. The primary configuration file for the BIND name server, named.conf, is found in the directory etc bind on Ubuntu and Kubuntu systems. As delivered on Ubuntu and Kubuntu systems, the etc bind named.conf file primarily consists of statements that load other BIND configuration files, providing a simple, hierarchical structure for your BIND configuration files. The...

Include etcbindzonesrfc1918local

These entries include each of these files and identify this server as the master server for the zone vonha-gen.org, which uses IP addresses in the 192.168.* family. Information about the zone vonhagen. org is provided in the file etc bind vonhagen.zone. Reverse lookup information for IP addresses in the 192.168.* family is provided in the file etc bin 168.192.in-addr.arpa. The entries that identify these files use full pathnames because these files are stored in etc bind, not the server's...

Installing a DHCP Server

Most server processes aren't installed as part of a default Ubuntu or Kubuntu installation because, let's face it, not everybody needs (or wants) to run servers. However, as with all software packages on Ubuntu and Kubuntu, the package management software discussed in Chapter 23 makes it easy to install a DHCP server. The DHCP server that I suggest installing is the Institutional Service Component's (ISC) v3 server, which is found in the package dhcp3-server. This is the latest and greatest...

Gksudo gdhcpd

After you supply your password, the gdhcpd utility starts, as shown in Figure B10-1. Starting the GNOME DHCP configuration utility Starting the GNOME DHCP configuration utility Scopes j Singta hovU j Lease* I Verify Network card Network address Subnet mask Loadbalancing server Don't worry if the gdhcpd application displays a message about not being able to find the DHCP server in your path because (by default) it looks for a DHCP server executable named dhcpd, while the name of the ISC v3 DHCP...

Other Repositories of Interest

As you can see from the examples in the previous section, the standard Ubuntu repositories are all hosted on systems that are in the ubuntu.com domain. This makes perfect sense because this is the only way that the Canonical folks can guarantee the integrity of their repository and the adherence of various components and their contents to the associated licensing guidelines. However, additional repositories of Ubuntu software are also available on the Internet (I know that's a surprise),...

Activating Qpopper for POPPOP3 Support

Qpopper is a popular, free POP POP3 server from the folks at Qualcomm, who both sell and give away the popular PC and Macintosh MUA, Eudora. I like Qpopper because it supports the vanilla Linux UNIX mbox format that Postfix uses by default on Ubuntu. When using the mbox mailbox format, all messages are stored in a single file, and each message begins with the string From user domain, followed by the timestamp for the message. I suggested that you install Qpopper in the section on installing...

Introducing Ubuntu Linux

Ubuntu Linux is a Linux distribution founded in 2004. Originally focused on the needs of desktop and laptop users, Ubuntu has branched out since then, and now also offers distributions focused on the needs of commercial users with its Ubuntu Server distribution, Ubuntu JeOS for virtualization platforms, and Ubuntu Mobile for mobile and embedded devices such as smart phones, Internet tablets, and so on. All of these flavors of Ubuntu Linux are products of the Ubuntu project sponsored by...

Installing an Ubuntu Server

Depending on the speed of your system and Internet connection, installing Ubuntu can take a little while. However, the wait is worth it. Insert the Ubuntu install CD in your CD drive and boot from it. Now do the following 1. After booting from the CD and selecting your language from an initial set of menus, the screen shown in Figure 3-1 displays. The Server Install CD actually has three installation options, which you can display by pressing F4, which displays the pop-up menu shown in Figure...

Exploring the Desktop CDs Examples Folder

The Ubuntu Desktop DVD that is provided with this book includes a folder of sample documents, graphics files, and so on, that makes it easy for you to experiment with different Linux applications by giving you some actual files to open, edit, save, and generally play with. (Kubuntu users, don't despair see the note in the previous section for information about how to download an archive file containing this directory to your machine.) The example files not only serve to demonstrate various...

Aisle Riot Solitaire

I've played solitaire since I was a kid, and somehow thought that there was only one solitaire game that being, of course, the one that I'd learned to play, which turned out to be Klondike. I became more enlightened recently when my wife asked me what other versions of solitaire were available. Googling told me that there were indeed a few zillion solitaire games, so I bought her an analog data storage device that came preloaded with information about solitaire that is, a book on the subject. I...

Building a Standalone Package

The Ubuntu repositories are great and contain most of the software that most people will ever want. However, if you're looking for a specific application and it isn't in the Ubuntu repositories, the first thing to do is to use a search engine such as Clusty or Google to try to locate someone who has already built the application that you're looking for and offers it as a DEB package that you can install on your Linux system. Some trust issues are involved in this scenario you have to hope that...

Scrabble Clones

Scrabble is another classic board game that is extremely popular but suffers from the same commercial ownership and corporate malaise as Monopoly. Scrabble is owned by Milton Bradley, which is also a wholly owned subsidiary of Hasbro. Microsoft Windows and Macintosh versions of Scrabble are available, but until Hasbro sees fit to release a Linux version, we'll just have to content ourselves with open source clones. Unfortunately, the unofficial Linux version (PyScrabble, written in Python) that...

VThe page at httpshelp ubuntu com communi ty Root Sudo explains how to

Pt JUSOTlSfiie change a Ubuntu or Kubuntu system to reenable the traditional root account. Although this is possible, I strongly suggest that you do not do this unless you have an excellent, site-specific reason to do so and are willing to have your Ubuntu and Kubuntu system(s) be fundamentally different from all other Ubuntu and Kubuntu systems in the known universe. This section explains the internals of the sudo command and its configuration file, and discusses how to grant administrative...

Using the Adept Manager on KDE 4Based Systems

The Adept utilities are installed by default as part of any Kubuntu installation. Select the K Menu C> Applications C> System C> Package Manager menu item to start the Adept Package Manager. As when trying to run any graphical administrative application on Kubuntu, you will be prompted for your administrative password before the Adept Manager actually starts. Figure 23-42 shows the dialog displayed when you first start the Adept Manager. sound system from The official Kill- release GNOME...

Connecting to an FTP Server from the Command Line

You can also connect to a remote FTP server by typing the ftp command and the name or IP address of the server from any Ubuntu or Kubuntu command line, such as the GNOME Terminal, KDE Konsole, or an xterm. The following example connects to an FTP server running on a system whose IP address is 192.168.6.64 220-You are user number 2 of 10 allowed. 220-This is a private system - No anonymous login 220-IPv6 connections are also welcome on this server. 220 You will be disconnected after 15 minutes...

Installing Kerberos Client and Server Commands

Using Kerberos requires that you either build and install it yourself from scratch or that a few basic packages are already installed on your systems. If you need to build it yourself, you can download the latest version from MIT at http web.mit.edu kerberos www. However, building Kerberos is rarely necessary on Ubuntu and Kubuntu systems, because the Ubuntu repositories already provide an up-to-date version of the Kerberos packages that you'll need on the system that acts as your Kerberos...

Greylisting via postgrey

In the section on Installing Postfix and Friends, I suggested that you install postgrey, which is a grey-listing application that was designed to work with Postfix. That package is set up and started automatically and requires no other mandatory configuration if you installed it when you installed and started Postfix, it's already working for you. As mentioned in the installation section, greylisting is a cool technique wherein your mail server rejects all incoming mail the first time that a...

Overview of DNS and BIND

DNS gives your network an entry point into a hierarchical collection of hostname and IP address servers on an intranet or the Internet itself. All of the hosts on your network can query one or more local DNS servers for local hostname and IP address information. Requests for hostname and IP address information outside the administrative domain of your DNS servers are automatically passed up the DNS food chain until some DNS server can authoritatively give you the information you're looking for....

Using the X Window System Terminal Application

Any X Window System distribution includes a lightweight terminal application known as xterm. The executable for the X Window System's terminal application, shown in Figure 14-6, is located in usr bin xterm. To start the xterm application, do any of the following Add a menu item for the xterm application, as explained in Customizing GNOME Menus for GNOME in Chapter 5, and for KDE in Chapters 7 and 8. You can then select that menu item to run the command. Create a launcher for the xterm...

Adding Other Panels

As mentioned previously, you can display more than one panel (and more than one type of panel) on the screen at the same time. All of the panels that are displayed on your screen are controlled by a single instance of the kicker application the fact that multiple panels are displayed on your screen does not mean that multiple copies of the kicker are running. You can add new panels of the following types to your KDE desktop Dock application bar A panel that enables users to dock applications...

Installing and Using QEMU

QEMU http bellard.org qemu is an amazingly powerful open source CPU emulator by Fabrice Bellard and a host of others. QEMU can emulate a huge variety of architectures, processors, and related peripheral hardware. QEMU can run operating systems and software that are compiled for platforms including 32- and 64-bit x86, 32- and 64-bit PowerPC, Motorola 68000, 32- and 64-bit SPARC, SH, MIPS, and ARM. QEMU virtualizes a complete hardware environment for each of these processors architectures,...

Using Desktop CD Persistence

Live CDs such as the Ubuntu and Kubuntu Desktop CDs provide an easy way to temporarily turn any compatible computer system into an Ubuntu or Kubuntu Linux system. However, the fact that most Live CDs don't provide any sort of persistent storage for configuration data, custom applications, and so on (other than manually copying files to other local or networked storage) traditionally limited the practical usability of Live CDs to simple demonstrations, one-time experimentation, and general...

Default Actions

When you attach a digital device such as a music player or digital camera to your Ubuntu system, it displays a dialog like the ones shown in Figure 21-1. These dialogs suggest a default action that Ubuntu believes is appropriate for that device the dialog on the left is from a sample system to which I attached an MP3 player, while the dialog on the right was displayed after I attached a digital camera to the same system. Prompt dialogs for music players and digital cameras Prompt dialogs for...

Figure 2114

Your Ubuntu system detecting a digital camera Your Ubuntu system detecting a digital camera To use F-Spot, the recommended application, simply click OK. If you always want to automatically use F-Spot whenever any device containing digital photos is detected, you can select the Always perform this action checkbox before clicking OK. A dialog like the one shown in Figure 21-15 opens. The dialog shown in Figure 21-15 provides two options that you may want to consider before importing the...

Configuring Wireless Connections on Ubuntu

To examine or modify how a specific wireless connection is configured, or to create a new wireless connection, select the Wireless tab, which displays a pane like the one shown in Figure 25-6. p If you are connecting to a wireless network that uses WEP 40 128-bit Key, WEP 128-bit pj JUSOTlSSiaS Passphrase, and no security (which are almost functionally equivalent nowadays), you can quickly define a new wireless network connection by right-clicking on the network Manager applet and selecting the...

Overview of Wireless Technologies

Wireless networking is amazingly useful, both on the job (so that you never have to play rock paper scissors over a limited number of Ethernet cables in a conference room), and even more so when traveling, enabling you to connect laptops, phones, and PDAs to the Internet in libraries, coffee shops, hotels, and many other public places. Wireless networking also provides an excellent mechanism for connecting networks of computers that are located in inaccessible locations or in existing...

Importing Mail into Thunderbird Existing Users

If you've already been using Thunderbird on Ubuntu and are simply migrating old mail from a Windows system, the directory .mozilla-tllunderbird will already exist in your home directory on your Ubuntu system. That directory will already contain a default profile directory named something like xxxxxx .default and your profile initialization file, profiles.ini. In this case, you will want to use Thunderbird's import capability to import the Thunderbird mail from your Windows system into your...

Using Krita

Krita (www.koffice.org krita) is a KDE-based image creation and editing tool that many people prefer to GIMP (especially KDE purists who don't want to have to install GIMP's GTK baggage on their shiny KDE boxes). As you may have noticed, I'm not a purist I believe in installing the best tool for the job on my Linux systems, and that disk space is cheap. So why use Krita rather than GIMP If you're a Kubuntu user, Krita uses the KDE libraries and GUI conventions, and works seamlessly with other...

Migrating Email to Linux

Because e-mail is one of the two killer applications for modern computing (the other being the Web browser), preserving your existing e-mail is a pretty important aspect of moving to a new computer. This is especially true if you're also moving to a new operating system such as Ubuntu. I'm pretty compulsive about saving e-mail I still have messages that I exchanged with friends in the early 1990s. (I used some proprietary and academic mail systems before that, but I'm not 100 percent...

Loading and Using an Initial RAM Disk or RAM Filesystem

Many Linux systems use a special type of filesystem as part of the boot process, before actually mounting the nontransient storage devices that are attached to your system. These initial filesystems are optional, and come in two different flavors an initrd (initial RAM disk) or initramfs (initial RAM filesystem). On most desktop and server computer systems, these initial filesystems are typically used to load kernel modules, such as specialized device drivers that the kernel needs but that are...

Using gtkgnutella

Installing gtk-gnutella as described in the previous section creates a menu item on the Applications O Internet menu. To start gtk-gnutella, click the Gtk-Gnutella item on this menu, which starts the application and displays a window like the one shown in Figure B2-23. The first time that you start gtk-gnutella, it will create the gtk-gnutella-downloads directory in your home directory, which is where it will store the files that it downloads. This directory contains three subdirectories...

Compiz History Compiz Emerald Beryl and Friends

This section discusses the history of compositing window managers on Linux and the window managers that led to Compiz and Compiz Fusion today. Not everyone wants a history lesson, so if you're not interested, feel free to skip ahead. However, this section will provide a handy reference after you've heard terms such as Beryl, Emerald, Compiz, and Compiz Fusion over and over and wonder what they mean. Like almost all graphics components on Linux systems, compositing window managers depend on the...

Peerto Peer File Sharing on Ubuntu

Let's say that you have a tarball or ISO of the greatest open source software package ever, everyone who hears about it wants a copy, and you want to make it freely available to all users. The classic solution to this problem was for you to put it on your FTP or, more recently, Web server, and then to advertise its existence to the known universe. Regardless of how fast your servers are, how many you have, and how fast your connection to the Internet is, it's easy to spot the problem with this...

Booting Your Server for the First Time

Once the server installation process completes, the screen shown in Figure 3-22 displays. Remove the install CD and press Return to reboot your system into your newly installed Ubuntu Linux server f slOiHff The Ubuntu boot process differs depending on whether you have installed Ubuntu as a ssfiii1

Setting System Sound Levels

The section of Chapter 5 entitled Customizing Panel Contents discussed how to add various applets to your GNOME desktop's panels. One of the more useful applets that is preinstalled for you in the upper panel on your Ubuntu Desktop is the Volume Control applet, whose icon looks like a small speaker and is usually displayed at right in the top panel, just to the left of the date. To customize your system's volume settings for the current session, right-click on this icon. The slider shown in...

Linux Sound Servers

Linux systems use sound servers (AKA sound daemons) to enable the simultaneous playback of multiple output devices and to enable playing and controlling sound over a network. (ALSA audio drivers inherently support simultaneous playback and mixing, but most OSS drivers do not.) Traditionally, the most common sound server on GNOME-based systems has been ESD (Enlightened Sound Daemon, aka EsounD, www.tux.org ricdude overview.html). With Ubuntu 8.04 and in most other up-to-date GNOME-based Linux...

Creating a Virtual Machine

Creating a virtual machine in VMware is fairly easy thanks to VMware's easy-to-use New Virtual Machine Wizard. To begin creating a virtual machine, either click the Create a new virtual machine button shown in Figure B7-23, or select the File C> New C> Virtual Machine menu command. This displays a generic Welcome dialog. Click Next to display a dialog like the one shown in Figure B7-24. Identifying the type of virtual machine to create Identifying the type of virtual machine to create This...

Customizing Digital Device Recognition on KDE 4based Systems

As mentioned elsewhere in this book (especially in Chapter 8), KDE 4 is a work in progress, which means that some things happen faster than others. One thing that has not happened very quickly is making it easy for users to customize what happens when you attach a digital device such as a USB stick, digital camera, or digital audio player to your system. At the moment, the only option in the Device Notifier for any of these is Open with Dolphin (as shown in Figure 21-8), which is not the...

Package Management Software Overview

Ubuntu and Kubuntu Linux installations provide several different utilities for managing and querying software packages, ranging from low-level command-line tools to tools with sophisticated graphical interfaces. The following are the basic user-level tools provided as part of a standard Ubuntu or Kubuntu installation apt-get A command-line utility that provides subcommands, which enable you to install, remove, and manage packages on your system, both as individual packages and as components of...

Configuring Power Management

As mentioned in the previous section, the Screensaver Preferences dialog also provides a Power Management button that starts the Power Management Preferences application. A more common (and more intuitive) way of configuring power management and related activities is by selecting the System Preferences Power Management menu item. Selecting either of these displays the dialog shown in Figure 5-24. The Power Management Preferences dialog provides two or three tabs the On AC Power tab which...

Converting Packages from Other Package Formats

Although the Ubuntu repositories contain most of the add-on software packages that anyone could ever want, there are cases when you must deal with pre-packed software that is provided in the package formats used by distributions other than Ubuntu. This is often the case with commercial software whose Linux releases are distributed in formats such as RPM and LSB. Luckily, an easy solution to this sort of problem is provided by the alien application which is a Perl script that can convert between...

Importing Existing Spreadsheets into Gnumeric

Linux folks like me tend to be Linux-centric, but that doesn't mean that we can completely ignore reality. When you're working with existing spreadsheets (and any other office-related documents, to be honest), the chances are pretty good that you created them using more common software packages, such as Microsoft Excel, that run on other operating systems, such as Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. The folks who wrote and support Gnumeric couldn't ignore this reality either, so Gnumeric provides...

Networking and Virtual Box

VirtualBox includes an internal DHCP server and built-in support for NAT (Network Address Translation) that enables your virtual machines to automatically obtain IP addresses on a private, Internet subnet. Virtual machines that you create in VirtualBox automatically use NAT networking to reach external networks such as the Internet. Unfortunately, such communications are handled by VirtualBox rather than through standard networking infrastructure. This means that, by default, you can't use...

Using the Adept Manager on KDE 3Based Systems

The Adept utilities are installed by default as part of any Kubuntu installation. Select the K Menu C System C Adept Manager menu item to start the Adept Package Manager. As when trying to run any graphical administrative application on Kubuntu, you will be prompted for your administrative password before the Adept Manager actually starts. Figure 23-32 shows the dialog displayed when you first start the Adept Manager. From top to bottom and left to right, the different areas of the main Adept...

Adding Eideata Drives

Once your system is turned off and open, locate the IDE cables that are attached to the EIDE interfaces on your motherboard (or, in rare cases, to an IDE or EIDE controller card). IDE cables are flat, 40-pin ribbon cables with two flat, notched connectors near one end and a similar connector at the other end. Most PCs have two IDE interfaces, known as primary (IDE-1) and secondary (IDE-2). The cable from each IDE interface can be attached to a maximum of two hard or CD DVD drives. If two drives...

Ripping Audio CDs

Ripping is the term that is used to describe the process of extracting the contents of audio CDs and converting them into audio files that you can play in other applications. It isn't necessary to rip a video DVD, because it just contains files in a certain order in certain directories, which you can copy from the command line or from any file manager. Audio CDs are different they are constructed in a specific format, and contain huge audio files in raw format. The traditional UNIX philosophy...

Creating a Disk for a KVM Virtual Machine

In order to create and use a KVM virtual machine, you must first create a virtual hard disk for use by that virtual machine. This virtual hard disk can be an existing logical volume or physical partition on your system, or a file in any filesystem that your system can access. Using a file as a virtual disk for your machine has two primary advantages File-based virtual machines can easily be moved or cloned to another computer system that supports KVM by simply copying the file to the other...

Popular Emulation Software for Linux

The best-known emulation package for most systems is not a desktop computer emulator at all it's the Multi-Arcade Machine Emulator (MAME, at www.mame.net), which enables you to play a variety of ancient arcade video games directly from images of their ROMs. I love this package arcade video games were my original motivation for getting interested in computers. Although system administration turned out to be more fun for me, playing some ancient video game via MAME is incredibly fun, and the MAME...

Using the Mouse

Interacting with a graphical user interface of any kind traditionally requires the use of a mouse and keyboard to control the cursor, to select and move items, access menus, and enter data within applications. As you'll see throughout this book, the actions associated with the different mouse buttons do different things depending on the portion of the screen or application in which you use them. This is known as being context sensitive, and is one of the keys to performing many different types...

GNOME Desktop Overview

Figure 5-1 shows the default GNOME desktop on an Ubuntu Linux system the first time you log in. This figure also displays a single application window as an example you won't see that unless you explicitly select the Applications Accessories Terminal menu command, but I wanted to be able to explain the window controls that are available in any GNOME application window. The Ubuntu folks have gone through a lot of effort to create an attractive, eye-pleasing background, set of fonts, window...

GNOME Keyboard Shortcuts

If you have problems controlling a mouse or simply prefer to keep your hands on the keyboard at all times, GNOME provides several special key sequences that enable you to perform most traditionally mouse-driven desktop activities using only the keyboard. These are commonly referred to as keyboard shortcuts. To activate these, press and hold down the first key in the sequence while pressing the second. The most popular keyboard shortcuts for the GNOME desktop are as follows Alt+F1 Displays the...

Customizing KDE Menus

KDE 3-based Kubuntu systems provide you with three ways to customize the contents of the K Menu Customize the K Menu by adding predefined applications The K Menu's Add Remove Programs menu item enables you to customize this menu by installing new software packages from a pre-selected set of popular applications. Using this menu item is discussed in the section of Chapter 23 entitled Using the Add Remove Programs Menu Item in Kubuntu. This menu item is extremely convenient to add some popular...

Using the KDE 4 Panel

As mentioned previously, the KDE 4 panel that replaced the traditional Kicker application is actually a special type of plasmoid, which is the Plasma-specific term for an applet that runs in the context of the new KDE 4 Plasma desktop shell. Plasmoids, more generally known as widgets, are discussed in more detail later in this chapter, but the panel is such a fundamental (and traditional) way of interacting with KDE that it's important to talk about it separately. From left to right, the...

Adding Widgets

There are several basic ways to add widgets to your KDE 4 desktop Right-clicking on the desktop or panel and selecting Add Widgets from the context-sensitive menu Moving the mouse into the upper-right corner of the screen, left-clicking, and selecting Add Widgets from the menu that displays. If widgets are currently locked when using either of these options, you will have to select Unlock Widgets to display the Add Widgets menu option. Selecting Add Widgets in either of these cases displays the...

Exiting Kopete

As mentioned earlier in this section, Kopete creates an icon for itself in the kicker's system tray area when you start Kopete. Closing the Kopete window by using the Close box in the upper-right corner does not actually terminate Kopete you can redisplay the Kopete window at any time by left-clicking on Kopete's icon in the system tray. To actually close Kopete, select the File C Quit menu option, or right-click on the Kopete icon in the system tray and select the Quit command from the...

Taking a Quick Tour of Writer

You can start Writer from the command line by executing the oowriter command. More conveniently, a menu item for Writer is installed in the Applications C Office menu called OpenOffice.org Word Processor. To start Writer from the menus, select this menu item. The application starts, displaying an empty document, as shown in Figure 16-8. Writer provides excellent online help, as do all of the tools in the OpenOffice.org suite, so I won't bore you by walking you through each menu and entry that...

Playing Audio Files and Internet Radio on Kubuntu

Amarok was discussed earlier in this chapter in the context of playing CDs, but it's really much more. Amarok is oriented toward audio delivered in a variety of file formats, whether as a CD, a stream that you can read over the Internet, or a physical file that you downloaded or ripped, stored on your computer system, and subsequently want to play. To start Amarok on a KDE 3-based system, select the K Menu C Multimedia C Amarok menu command. To start Amarok on a KDE 4-based system, select the K...