Once your system is turned off and open, locate the IDE cables that are attached to the EIDE interfaces on your motherboard (or, in rare cases, to an IDE or EIDE controller card). IDE cables are flat, 40-pin ribbon cables with two flat, notched connectors near one end and a similar connector at the other end. Most PCs have two IDE interfaces, known as primary (IDE-1) and secondary (IDE-2). The cable from each IDE interface can be attached to a maximum of two hard or CD/DVD drives. If two drives are attached to a single cable, they must be configured as master and slave drives by connecting pins known as jumpers that are located on the back or bottom of the hard drive or CD-ROM drive. Master is the term used for the first drive on an IDE interface; slave is the term used for the second drive on the IDE interface.
To add a new drive to your system, you must set the jumper (or jumpers) on the new drive so that it does not conflict with any existing drive on a given IDE interface in your system. To do so, you must know how the current drives are connected. You can determine how the existing hard drive(s) and CD/ DVD drive(s) are connected in one of two ways: automatically (by checking the BIOS settings on your system) or manually (by simply checking the connections and jumpers on the existing drives). Because you've (hopefully) already turned the PC off and the ways of collecting information from a PC BIOS differ depending on which BIOS your system uses, we'll focus on looking just at the cables and jumpers.
By tracing cables and examining jumpers, you can manually identify how the drives are connected. To do so, follow each of the IDE cables from your motherboard back to any hard drives or CD/DVD drives connected to them. The hard drive that your PC boots from is known as the boot drive, and it is usually connected as the master on the first IDE interface on your system. If your CD/DVD drive is connected to the same IDE cables as your hard drive, it is probably jumpered as the slave on the primary IDE interface (IDE-1). If your CD-ROM drive is connected to your other IDE cable (IDE-2), it is probably jumpered as the master on that interface.
j : .--p ,-rj --" ^jg If there are already two devices attached to an IDE interface and your PC was working correctly before, skip that IDE interface—it's already fully populated and correctly configured.
Once you know how your current drives are connected, you can proceed to jumper your new drive so that it does not conflict with existing drives in your system. A guide to the jumpers on your hard drive that will cause the drive to be recognized as a master or slave drive is usually printed on the top of the hard drive.
j r, A.-. - Be careful when reading the jumper information; although it is usually written from left
I: ■^VVVto right, just as the jumpers are physically located on the hard drive, some jumper settings are listed relative to a jumper key, which is a single pin on the left or right side of the hard drive jumpers.
After you jumper your new drive, mount it in a drive bay, attach it to the selected IDE cable in your system, and provide power to the drive by connecting it to one of your system's power feeds. At this point, you can power up the system, boot into Linux, and then follow the instructions in the section later in this chapter entitled "Locating, Partitioning, and Formatting New Drives." Some common problems at this point are the following:
■ If you have trouble booting your system after adding a new drive, see the section entitled "Troubleshooting Boot Problems after Adding New Drives" later in this chapter.
■ The most common source of problems when adding a new EIDE/ATA drive to an existing system is jumpering it incorrectly. If a new drive is jumpered to be the same (master or slave) as an existing drive, your system will usually not be able to see either drive. You can verify that the new drive is jumpered, attached, and detected correctly by entering the BIOS immediately after rebooting the PC and examining the primary and secondary IDE interfaces.
■ If you have problems finding the new drive after booting, reboot your system and press a key such as the F2 or Delete key to enter your system's BIOS setup screens. (A message that identifies the key that is required to access your system's BIOS is usually displayed when you boot your computer.) The Main or System section of these screens should enable you to probe your IDE
or SATA drives to verify that your system can actually find them. If your system doesn't see the drive(s) at all, check the power and IDE/SATA connections to the drive.
You will not be able to use any new drive on your system until you have partitioned and formatted the drive. Some drives come preformatted with an NTFS filesystem, which is probably not a filesystem that you want to use on an internal drive on a Linux system. See the section later in this chapter entitled "Locating, Partitioning, and Formatting New Drives" for detailed information about partitioning and formatting your new drives.
The traditional IDE subsystem on Linux systems recognized EIDE/ATA hard drives as devices with names of the form /dev/hdX, where X was a letter that reflected the sequence in which drives were located on your system's IDE interfaces. SCSI hard drives used their driver subsystem, using names of the form / dev/sdX. SATA also used the SCSI subsystem and, therefore, followed the same naming convention as most removable Flash and USB drives. However, in 2007, the existing IDE subsystem in the kernel was replaced by a newer PATA subsystem, which uses the /dev/sdX. naming convention. This is a superior subsystem, although it certainly confused a number of people when drives formerly known as /dev/hdX. started showing up with names in the form /dev/sdX. after a kernel upgrade, especially if their GRUB configuration file wasn't updated at the same time. This should all be water under the bridge now, but it's worth explaining because hard drive naming conventions often confuse people in the first place, let alone after drives "rename themselves."
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