Ubuntu Administration

Configuring Remote Printers with systemconfigprinters

You can also use system-config-printer to set up a remote printer on Linux, Unix, or Windows networks. Access system-config-printers by choosing System Administration Printing. When you add a new printer or edit a printer settings, the New Printer Select Connection dialog will list possible remote connection types (Figure 29-7). When you select a remote connection entry, a panel will be displayed, where you can enter configuration information. For a remote Linux or UNIX printer, select either...

GNOME Desktop Preferences

You can configure different parts of your GNOME interface using tools listed in System Preferences, where Ubuntu also provides several tools for configuring your GNOME desktop. The GNOME preferences are shown in Table 8-3. Several are discussed in different sections in this and other chapters. The Help button on each preference window will display detailed descriptions and examples. Some of the more important tools are discussed here. The keyboard shortcuts configuration (Keyboard Shortcuts)...

Running Microsoft Office on Linux Cross Over and Wine

One of the primary concerns for new Linux users is what kind of access they will have to their Microsoft Office files, particularly Word files. The Linux operating system and many applications for it are designed to provide seamless access to MS Office files. The major Linux office suites, including KOffice, OpenOffice.org, and StarOffice, all read and manage any MS Office files. In addition, these office suites are fast approaching the same level of features and support for office tasks as...

LDAP Directory Database ldif

A record (also known as entry) in an LDAP database begins with a name, known as a distinguishing name, followed by a set of attributes and their values. The distinguishing name uniquely identifies the record. For example, a name could be a username and the attribute would be the user's e-mail address, the address being the attribute's value. Allowable attributes are determined by schemas defined in the etc ldap schema directory. This directory will hold various schema definition files, each...

Linux as an IPv6 Router radvd

For a Linux system that operates as a router, you use the radvd (Router Advertisement Daemon) to advertise addresses, specifying a network prefix in the etc radvd.conf file (Ubuntu main repository). The radvd daemon will detect router network address requests from hosts, known as router solicitations, and provide them with a network address using a router advertisement. These router advertisements will also be broadcast to provide the network address to any hosts that do not send in requests....

Device Files dev udev and HAL

To mount a file system, you have to specify its device name. The interfaces to the devices that may be attached to your system are provided by special files known as device files. The names of these device files are the device names. Device files are located in the dev directories and Each process is held in a directory that's labeled by its number proc 1 is the directory for process 1, for example Contains information about the CPU, such as its type, make, model, and performance Lists the...

Wubi Windows Based Installer

Wubi is an Ubuntu installer that lets you install and run Ubuntu from Windows. It is a simple, safe, and painless way to install Linux for users who want to preserve their Windows system without having to perform any potentially hazardous hard disk partition operations to free up space and create new hardware partitions for Ubuntu. Wubi is already integrated into the Ubuntu 8.04 Desktop CD. Using Wubi, you do not have to create a separate partition for Ubuntu. A file created on your Window...

Network Manager

Ubuntu uses NetworkManager to detect both wired and wireless network connections. NetworkManager uses the automatic device detection capabilities of udev and the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) to configure your connections. NetworkManager is turned on by default. With multiple wireless access points for Internet connections, a system could have several different network connections from which to choose, instead of a singleline connection such as DSL or cable. This is particularly true for...

Network Interfaces and Routes ifconfig and route

Your connection to a network is made by your system through a particular hardware interface, such as an Ethernet card or a modem. Data passing through this interface is then routed to your network. The ifconfig command configures your network interfaces, and the route command sets up network connections accordingly. If you configure an interface with a network configuration tool provided by your Linux distribution, you needn't use ifconfig or route. However, you can directly configure...

Managing LVM Physical Volumes with the LVM Commands

A physical volume can be any hard disk partition or RAID device. A RAID device is seen as a single physical volume. You can create physical volumes either from a single hard disk or from partitions on a hard disk. On very large systems with many hard disks, you would more likely use an entire hard disk for each physical volume. Open an interactive shell for executing LVM commands Scan all disks for LVM physical partitions Display detailed information about Logical Volumes List logical volumes...

Ubuntu Administrative Tools

Administration is handled by a set of separate specialized administrative tools developed and supported by Ubuntu, such as those for user management and display configuration. To access the GUI-based Ubuntu tools, you log in as a user who has administrative access. (This is the user you created when you first installed Ubuntu.) On the GNOME desktop, you can access system administrative tools from the System Administration menu. Here you will find tools to set the time and date, to manage users,...

GUI User Management Tools usersadmin

Currently, the easiest and most effective way to add new users on Ubuntu is to use GNOME's users-admin tool. You can access it from the GNOME desktop by choosing System Administration Users And Groups. GNOME's users-admin tool provides a simple interface for adding, modifying, and removing users and groups. The Users Settings window (Figure 22-1) lists users' names, login names, and home directories, along with the users' icons they chose with the About Me tool (System Preferences). To the...

Policy Kit Configuration Files and Tools

Devices and administrative applications that want to make use of PolicyKit must be modified to access it. Currently, HAL, which controls access to most devices, provides PolicyKit control for devices. On GNOME, the clock applet is configured for PolicyKit control. PolicyKit for devices and applications are configured using XML files with the extension .policy in the usr share PolicyKit policy directory. Here you will find .policy files for the gnome-clock-applet as well as several for HAL and...

Multimedia System Selector

GStreamer can be configured to use different input and output sound and video drivers and servers. You can make these selections using the GStreamer properties tool. To open this tool you enter gstreamer-properties in a terminal window. This opens a window labeled Multimedia Systems Selector which displays two tabbed panels, one for sound and the other for video. The output drivers and servers are labeled Default Sink, and the input divers are labeled Default Source. Pop-up menus list the...

MPEG4 Files DivX and Xvid on Linux

MPEG-4 compressed files provide DVD-quality video with relatively small file sizes. They have become popular for distributing high-quality video files over the Internet. When you first try to play an MPEG-4 file, the codec wizard will prompt you to install the needed codec packages to play it. Many multimedia applications such as VLC already support MPEG-4 files. DivX is a commercial video version of MPEG-4 compress video files, free for personal use. You can download the Linux version of DivX...

Document Viewers Post Script PDF and DVI

Though located under Graphic submenu in the Applications menu, PostScript, PDF, and Digital Visual Interface (DVI) viewers are more commonly used with Office applications (see Table 13-5). Evince and Ghostview can display both PostScript (.ps) and PDF (.pdf) files. Ghostview's X Window System front end is gv. KPDF and Xpdf are PDF viewers. KPDF includes many of the standard Adobe Reader features such as zoom, two-page display, and full-screen mode. Alternatively, you can download Acrobat Reader...

KDE Directories and Files

When KDE is installed on your system, its system-wide application, configuration, and support files may be installed in the same system directories as other GUIs and user applications. On Ubuntu, KDE is installed in the standard system directories with some variations, such as usr bin for KDE program files usr lib kde3, which holds KDE libraries and usr include kde, which contains KDE header files used in application development. The directories located in the share directory contain files used...

Mail Clients

You can send and receive e-mail messages in a variety of ways, depending on the type of mail client you use. Although all e-mail utilities perform the same basic tasks of receiving and sending messages, they tend to use different interfaces. Some mail clients operate on a desktop, such as KDE and GNOME. Others run on any X Window System managers. Several popular mail clients were designed to use a screen-based interface and can be started only from the command line. Other traditional mail...

Packet Mangling The Mangle Table

The packet mangling table is used to modify packet information. Rules applied specifically to this table are often designed to control the mundane behavior of packets, such as routing, connection size, and priority. Rules that modify a packet, rather than simply redirecting or stopping it, can be used only in the mangle table. For example, the TOS target can be used directly in the mangle table to change the Type of Service field to modifying a packet's priority. A TCPMSS target can be set to...

CUPS Web Browserbased Configuration Tool

One of the easiest way to configure and install printers with CUPS is to use the CUPS configuration tool, a Web browser-based tool. To start the Web interface, enter the following URL into your Web browser http localhost 631. This opens an administration screen, where you can manage and add printers. Users with administrative access will be given full access. Any printers that you set up with system-config-printer will already be configured. With the CUPS configuration tool, you install a...

CUPS Command Line Print Clients

Once a print job is placed on a print queue, you can use any of several print clients to manage the jobs on your printer or printers, such as klpq, the GNOME Print Manager, and the CUPS Printer Configuration tool for CUPS. You can also use several command line print CUPS clients, which include the lpr, lpc, lpq, and lprm commands. The Printer System Switcher moves you from one set to the other. With these clients, you can print documents, list a print queue, reorder it, and remove print jobs,...

Disabling and Enabling xinetd Services

You can turn services on or off manually by editing their xinetd configuration file. Services are turned on and off with the disable attribute in their configuration file. To enable a service, you set the disable attribute to no, as shown here You then have to restart xinetd to start the service Identifies a service. By default, the service ID is the same as the service name. Type of service RPC, INTERNAL (provided by xinetd), or UNLISTED (not listed in a standard system file). Possible flags...

Pulse Audio and Sound Interfaces

In addition to hardware drivers, sound system also uses sound interfaces to direct encoded sound streams from an application to the hardware drivers and devices. Many sound interfaces are available, but Ubuntu now uses the PulseAudio server, as do many other distributions. PulseAudio aims to combine and consolidate all sound interfaces into a simple, flexible, and powerful server. The ALSA hardware drivers are still used, but the application interface is handled by PulseAudio. PulseAudio...

Photo Management Tools FSpot and digiKam

The F-Spot photo manager (http f-spot.org) provides a simple and powerful way to manage, display, and import your photos and images (see Figure 14-1). Photos can be organized by different categories such as events, people, and places. You can perform standard display operations such as rotation or full-screen viewing, along with slide shows. Image editing support is provided. Selected photos can be directly burned to a CD (using Nautilus burning capabilities). Features include a simple and...

KVM Hardware Virtualization

Hardware virtualization is now directly supported in the kernel (pervious versions used a kernel module). Hardware virtualization is implemented by Intel and AMD as a Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM) abstraction layer. Intel processors that have hardware virtualization support are labeled VT (Virtualization Technology), and AMD processors are labeled SVM (Secure Virtual Machine). An HVM system can provide full virtualization, not requiring a specially modified versions of an OS kernel like Xen's...

Creating File Systems mkfs mke2fs mkswap parted and fdisk

Linux provides a variety of tools for creating and managing file systems, letting you add new hard disk partitions, create CD images, and format floppies. To use a new hard drive, you will first have to partition it and then create a file system on it. You can use either parted or fdisk to partition your hard drive. It may be easier and safer, though, to use the GUI front ends for parted, GParted and QTParted. Both provide clear graphics and an easy-to-use interface for managing, creating, and...

Permissions on GNOME and KDE

On GNOME, you can set a directory or file permission using the Permissions tab in the Properties window. Right-click the file or directory entry in the file manager window and choose Properties and open the Permissions tab (Figure 17-19). Here you will find pop-up menus for Read, Write, and Execute along with rows for Owner, Group, and Other. You can set owner permissions as Read Only or Read And Write. For the group and others, you can also set the None option, denying access. The group name...

File System Hierarchy Standard

Linux organizes its files and directories into one overall interconnected tree, beginning from the root directory and extending down to system and user directories. The organization and layout for the system directories are determined by the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS). The FHS provides a standardized layout that all Linux distributions should follow in setting up their system directories. For example, an etc directory must exist to hold configuration files and a dev directory to hold...

Firefox Bookmarks and History

Firefox refers to the URIs of Web pages you want to keep as bookmarks, marking pages you want to access directly. You can add favorite Web pages using the Bookmarks menu, or press ctrl-t to add a bookmark. You can then view a list of your bookmarks and select one to view. You can also edit your list, adding or removing bookmarks. When adding a bookmark, an Add Bookmark window opens with pop-up menus for folders and tags. The Folder menu is set to Bookmarks folder by default. You can also select...

Systemcconfigsamba

You will first have to configure the Samba server, designating users that can have access to shared resources such as directories and printers. Due to a compatibility issue with Ubuntu, you may have to issue the following command in order to have the system-config-samba tool install correctly. Samba Server Configuration with system-config-samba Then you can use system-config-samba on Ubuntu. 1. Open the system-config-samba tool by choosing System Administration Samba. 2. Then, choose...

GNOME Graphics Tools

GNOME features several powerful and easy-to-use graphics tools. Some are installed with Linux, and you can download others, such as GView and Gtkam, from http gnomefiles.org. In addition, many of the KDE tools work effectively in GNOME and are accessible from the GNOME desktop. Most are available on the Ubuntu main repository. The GTHUMB application is an image viewer and browser that lets you display images using thumbnails and organize them into catalogs or easy reference. See http gthumb...

Device Names and udev Rules etcudevrulesd

The name of a device file is designed to reflect the device's task. Printer device files begin with lp for line print. Because you can have more than one printer connected to your system, the particular printer device files are distinguished by two or more numbers or letters following the prefix lp, such as lp0, lp1, lp2. The same is true for terminal device files, which begin with the prefix tty, for teletype they are further distinguished by numbers or letters such as tty0, tty1, ttyS0, and...

The GConf Configuration Editor

GConf provides underlying configuration support (not installed by default). GConf corresponds to the Registry used on Windows systems. It consists of a series of libraries used to implement a configuration database for a GNOME desktop. This standardized configuration database allows for consistent interactions between GNOME applications. GNOME applications such as Nautilus that are built from a variety of other programs can use GConf to configure all those programs according to a single...

Installing systemconfiglvm

You can download this tool and install it on your Ubuntu system and it will work similar to the other Fedora tools already included with Ubuntu, such as system-config-printer. However, you must use the Fedora package, which then needs to be prepared as an Ubuntu-compliant Debian package. 1. Install the alien package from the Synaptic Package Manager. The alien package can convert packages from other distributions, including Red Hat and Fedora RPM packages, to Ubuntu-compliant DEB packages. 2....

Motherboard RAID Support dmraid

With kernel 2.6, hardware RAID devices are supported with the Device-Mapper Software RAID support tool (dmraid), which currently supports a wide range of motherboard RAID devices. Keep in mind that many hardware RAID devices are, in effect, really software RAID (fakeraid). Though you configure them in the motherboard BIOS, the drivers operate as software, like any other drivers. In this respect, they could be considered less flexible than a Linux software RAID solution, and they could also...

GNOME Power Management

Ubuntu uses the GNOME Power Manager, gnome-power-manager, which makes use of Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) support provided by a computer to manage power use. The GNOME Power Manager is configured with the Power Management Preferences window (gnome-power-preferences), accessible by choosing System Preferences Power Management. Power Manager can be used to configure both a desktop and a laptop. On a laptop, the battery icon displayed on the top panel will show how much power...

Accessing Your Linux System

If you have installed the GRUB boot loader, when you turn on or reset your computer, the boot loader first decides what operating system to load and run. The boot loader then loads the default operating system, which will be Ubuntu. Ubuntu will use a graphical interface by default, presenting you with a login window in which you enter your username and password. If other operating systems, such as Windows, are already installed on your computer, you can press the spacebar at startup to display...

Login Window Configuration

To change the login window, use the Login Screen Setup window accessible by choosing System Administration Login Window. This configures the GNOME Display Manager GDM , which runs your login process. Here you can set the background image, icons to be displayed, the theme to use, users to list, and even the welcome message see Figure 4-5 . You can also set up an automatic login for a particular user, skipping the GDM login screen on startup. Login screens can be configured for local or remote...

Manual Wireless Configuration with iwconfig

NetworkManager will automatically detect and configure your wireless connections, as will KNetworkManager. However, you can manually configure your connections with wireless tools such as Network Manager Editor and iwconfig. Wireless configuration makes use of the same set of wireless extensions in the Ubuntu main repository, wireless-tools package. The wireless-tools package is a set of network configuration and reporting tools for wireless devices installed on a Linux system. They are...

Manual Display Configuration

Your display will be detected automatically, and Ubuntu will configure both your graphics card and monitor. Normally you should not need to perform any configuration manually. However, with some hardware, your display or graphics card may not be correctly detected. Also, you may want to configure an additional screen(s) for multi-display output. All configuration tools and drivers will generate an X Window System configuration file called etc X11 xorg.conf. This is the file the X Window System...

Managing Samba Users smbasswd and pdbedit

To manage users, you can use either the smbpasswd command or the pdbedit tool, as well as system-config-samba. The smbpasswd command with the -a option will add a user, as shown next, and with the -x option will remove one. To enable or disable users you would use the -e and -d options. The smbpasswd command will operate on either the older smbasswd file or the newer tdbsam back-end database files. For the tdbsam back-end database files you can use pdbedit instead. To add a user, you would use...

The BASH Shell Logout File bashlogout

The .bash_logout file is also a configuration file, but it is executed when the user logs out. It is designed to perform any operations you want to occur whenever you log out. Instead of variable definitions, the .bash_logout file usually contains shell commands that form a kind of shutdown procedure actions you always want taken before you log out. One common logout command is to clear the screen and then issue a farewell message. As with .profile, you can add your own shell commands to...

LVM Example for Multiple Hard Drives

With hard drives becoming cheaper and the demand for storage increasing, many systems now use multiple hard drives. Without RAID, partitions on each hard drive had to be individually managed, and each hard drive had to be managed separately, with files having to fit into remaining storage as the drives filled up. RAID allows you to treat several hard disks as one storage device, but restrictions apply to the sizes and kinds of devices you can combine. With LVM, these restrictions do not apply....

Running Windows Software on Linux Wine

Wine is a Windows compatibility layer that allows you to run many Windows applications natively on Linux. Though you could run the Windows OS on Wine, the actual Windows OS is not required. Windows applications will run as if they were Linux applications, able to access the entire Linux file system and use Linux-connected devices. Applications that are heavily driver-dependent, such as graphics-intensive games, may not run. Others that do not rely on any specialized drivers may run very well,...

The Samba smbconf Configuration File

Samba configuration is held in the smb.conf file located in the etc samba directory. Samba configuration tools such as system-config-samba and SWAT will maintain this file for you. Alternatively, you can manually edit the file directly, creating your own Samba configuration. You may have to do this if your Samba configuration proves to be very complex. Direct editing can provide more refined control over your shares. You use the testparm command in a terminal window to check the syntax of any...

Managing Packages with Add Remove Applications

To perform simple installation and removal of software, you can use the Add Remove Applications tool accessible from the Applications menu. The gnome-app-install application is designed for simple package installation and removal. For more detailed and extensive installation such as libraries and kernel packages, you would use the Synaptic Package Manager. To use the Add Remove Applications tool, choose Applications Add Remove Applications. The Add Remove Applications tool will start by...

Importing Public Keys

In the Passwords And Encryption Keys window, click the Import button (or choose Key Import) to import any public keys you may have downloaded. If you know the name of the key file, you can try searching the key servers for it. Choose Remote Find Remote Keys to open the Find Remote Keys dialog, where you can enter a search string for the key (Figure 17-14). The search term is treated as a prefix, matching on all possible completions. An expandable tree lists you key servers choose which ones to...

Encrypting and Decrypting Files with Nautilus

Nautilus will generate an encrypted copy of a file with the extension .gpg. This tool operates like gpg with the -e option, and no -a option. To encrypt a file from Nautilus, select the file and then right-click to open the Nautilus pop-up menu. Choose the Encrypt option. Or select the file and choose Edit Encrypt. The Choose Recipients window then opens, letting you select the encryption keys and digital signature to use. Select the encryption key, and you will be prompted to enter the key's...

Symbolic Links

Certain device files are really symbolic links bearing common device names that are often linked to the actual device file used. A symbolic link is another name for a file that is used like a shortcut, referencing that file. Common devices such as printers, CD-ROM drives, hard drives, SCSI devices, and sound devices, along with many others, will have corresponding symbolic links. For example, a dev cdrom symbolic link links to the actual device file used for your CD-ROM. If your CD-ROM is an...

Upstart and Runlevels eventd and initd

Ubuntu still maintain System V init startup and shutdown scripts in the etc init.d directory that Upstart uses to start and stop services. You can run these scripts directly to start and stop a service. Upstart will also use the System V init links in runlevel directories ( etc rcn.d) to start and stop services. In effect, the supporting structure for runlevels remains the same, though in fact services are now handled by Upstart. System V init compatibility scripts, directory structure, and...

International Clock Time Date and Weather

The International Clock applet displays the current time and date for your region, but you can modify it to display the local weather, as well as the time, date, and weather of any location in the world. To add a location, right-click the time and choose Preferences. The Clock Preferences dialog displays three tabs General, Locations, and Weather. To add a new location, click the Add button on the Locations tab. This opens another dialog where you can enter the name, time zone, and coordinates...

Using Removable Devices and Media

Removable media such as CDs and DVDs, USB storage disks, digital cameras, and floppy disks will be displayed as icons on your desktop. These icons will not appear until you place the media into their appropriate devices. To open a disk, double-click its icon to display a file manager window and the files on it. Ubuntu now supports removable devices and media such as digital cameras, PDAs, card readers, and even USB printers. These devices are handled automatically with an appropriate device...

Ubuntu Help Center

Click the Help icon on the top panel (the icon) to start the GNOME help browser (Yelp), which presents the Ubuntu Help Center (see Figure 3-16). The GNOME help browser supports bookmarks for pages you want to access directly. Clicking the Help Topics button on the Ubuntu Help Center will return you to the start page. For detailed documentation and a tutorial on the GNOME help browser, choose Help Contents, or press fi. The Ubuntu Help Center displays topics about Ubuntu. Links range from adding...

Modifying Printer Properties

You can also change a printer configuration by selecting its entry in the Printer Configuration window. Once selected, a set of five tabs are displayed for that printer Settings, Policies, Access Control, Printer Options, and Job Options (Figure 29-5). On the Settings tab, you can change configuration settings such as the driver and the printer name, enable or disable the printer, or specify whether to share it or not. You can also make it the default printer. The Policies tab lets you specify...

Zero Configuration Networking Avahi and Link Local Addressing

Zero Configuration Networking (Zeroconf) allows the setup of nonroutable private networks without the need of a DHCP server or static IP addresses. A Zeroconf configuration lets users automatically connect to a network and access all network resources, such as printers, without having to perform any configuration. On Linux, Zeroconf networking is implemented by Avahi (http avahi.org), which includes multicast DNS (mDNS) and DNS service discovery (DNS-SD) support that automatically detects...

Manually Creating Persistent Names udevinfo

The key task in creating a persistent name is to use unique information to identify the device. You then create a rule that references the device with the unique information to identify it, and then name it with an official name, and then add a unique symbolic name. You can then use the unique symbolic name, such as canon-pr, to reference just that printer always and no other, when it is plugged in. In this example, unique information such as the Canon printer serial number is used to identify...

Connection Configuration Gnome Volume Control

Various output and input connections are activated and configured during automatic configuration. The standard connections are activated, but others, such as SPDIF digital connections, may not. You can mute and unmute, as well as control the volume of different connection with either GNOME Volume Control or KDE KMix. KMix will provide a complete display of every connection on your system, whereas GNOME Volume Control will show only those selected for display. KMix will show SPDIF connections,...

Archiving and Compressing Files with File Roller

GNOME provides the File Roller tool (choose Accessories Archive Manager) that operates as a GUI front end to archive and compress files, letting you perform Zip, gzip, tar, and bzip2 operation using a graphical interface. You can examine the contents of archives, extract the files you want, and create new compressed archives. When you create an archive, you determine its compression method by specifying its filename extension, such as .gz for gzip or .bz2 for bzip2. You can select the different...

Software Sources

With the Software Sources tool, you can enable or disable repository sections as well as add new entries. This tool edits the etc apt sources.list file directly. Choose System Administration Software Sources. This opens the Software Sources window with five tabs Ubuntu Software, Third-Party Software, Updates, Authentication, and Statistics (see Figure 6-14). The Ubuntu Software tab lists all your current repository section entries. These include the main repository, universe, restricted, and...