Apache Setting Up a Web Server

In This Chapter

JumpStart: Getting Apache Up and Running 919

Configuring Apache 921

Configuration Directives 925

Contexts and Containers 931

The Ubuntu apache2.conf File . . . 948

Redirects 951

Content Negotiation 951

Type Maps 951

MultiViews 952

Virtual Hosts 953

Troubleshooting 956

The World Wide Web (WWW or Web for short), is a collection of servers that hold material, called content, that Web browsers (or just browsers) can display. Each of the servers on the Web is connected to the Internet, a network of networks (an internetwork). Much of the content on the Web is coded in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language, page 1040). Hypertext, the links you click on a Web page, allows browsers to display and react to links that point to other Web pages on the Internet.

Apache is the most popular Web server on the Internet. It is both robust and extensible. The ease with which you can install, configure, and run it in the Linux environment makes it an obvious choice for publishing content on the World Wide Web. The Apache server and related projects are developed and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF), a not-for-profit corporation formed in June 1999. The ASF grew out of the Apache Group, which was established in 1995 to develop the Apache server.

This chapter starts by providing introductory information about Apache. Following this information is the JumpStart section, which describes the minimal steps needed to get Apache up and running. Next is "Filesystem Layout," which tells you where the various Apache files are located.

Configuration directives (referred to simply as directives) are a key part of Apache and are discussed starting on page 925. This section includes coverage of contexts and containers, two features/concepts that are critical to understanding Apache. The next section, which starts on page 948, explains the main Apache configuration file, apache2.conf, as distributed by Ubuntu. The final pages of the chapter cover virtual hosts, troubleshooting, and modules you can use with Apache, including CGI and SSL.

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