Although the Ubuntu installer can be relied upon to configure X during installation, problems can arise if the PC's video card is not recognized. If you do not get the graphical login that should come up when you reboot after installation (refer to Chapter 3, "Installing Ubuntu"), then you will have to do some configuration by hand in order to get X working. Note that some installs, such as for servers, do not require that X be configured for use to support active X sessions, but might require installation of X and related software to support remote users and clients.
You can use the following configuration tools, among others, to create a working xorg.conf file:
• dpkg reconfigure xserver-xorg This is Ubuntu 's text-based configuration tool, which guides you through creating an xorg.conf file.
• Xorg The X server itself can create a skeletal working configuration.
The following sections discuss how to use each of these software tools to create a working xorg.conf file.
You can use the dpkgreconfigure client to create or update an xorg.conf file. The beauty of this tool is that it is command line only, so it can be used if you have problems with your Xorg server. You start it by getting to a terminal and entering:
$ sudo dpkgreconfigure xserver-xorg to bring up the configuration dialog for configuring X. Your best bet is to try the autodetect before heading on to manually configure the X server. Nine times out of ten Ubuntu gets it right, but if you need to manually configure X then make sure you have all the necessary details such as:
• Graphics card make and chipset (e.g. ATI 9600 ([r350])
• Amount of memory on your graphics card
• Refresh rates (both horizontal and vertical) for your monitor
• Supported screen resolutions for your monitor
• Type of keyboard and mouse that you are using
If you have all of this information available then you will have no problem configuring X.
You can create the xorg.conf file manually by typing one from scratch using a text editor, but you can also create one automatically by using the Xorg server or configuration utilities (as discussed in the previous sections). As the root operator, you can use the following on the server to create a test configuration file:
# X -configure
After you press Enter, a file named xorg.conf .new is created in root's home directory, the /root directory. You can then use this file for a test session, like this:
# X config /root/xorg.conf.new
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