The shadow file (only a portion of which is shown in Listing 23.2) contains additional information not found in the standard /etc/passwd file, such as account expiration, password expiration, whether the account is locked, and the encrypted password. The * in the password field indicates that the account is not a standard login account; thus, it does not have a password.
Although shadow passwords are in use on the system, passwords are not transmitted in a secure manner when using FTP. Because FTP was written before the necessity of encryption and security, it does not provide the mechanics necessary to send encrypted passwords. Account information is sent in plain text on FTP servers; anyone with enough technical knowledge and a network sniffer can find the password for the account you connect to on the server. Many sites use an anonymous-only FTP server specifically to prevent normal account passwords from being transmitted over the Internet.
Figure 23.4 shows a portion of an ethereai capture of an FTP session for an anonymous user and his password ("foobarbaz"). The ethereai client is a graphical browser used to display network traffic in real time, and it can be used to watch packet data, such as an FTP login on a LAN.
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