Retrieving Data from a Database

Of course, the main reason for storing data in a database is so you can later look up, sort, and generate reports on that data. Basic data retrieval is done with the select statement, which has the following syntax:

SELECT columni, column2, column3 FROM table_name WHERE search_criteria;

The first two parts of the statementthe select and from partsare required. The where portion of the statement is optional. If it is omitted, all rows in the table tabie_name are returned.

The columni, coiumn2, coiumn3 indicates the name of the columns you want to see. If you want to see all columns, you can also use the wildcard * to show all the columns that match the search criteria. For example, the following statement displays all columns from the cd_collection table:

SELECT * FROM cd collection;

If you wanted to see only the titles of all the CDs in the table, you would use a statement such as the following:

SELECT title FROM cd collection;

To select the title and year of a CD, you would use the following:

SELECT title, year FROM cd_collection;

If you wanted something a little fancier, you can use SQL to print the CD title followed by the year in parentheses, as is the convention. Both MySQL and PostgreSQL provide string concatenation functions to handle problems such as this. However, the syntax is different in the two systems.

In MySQL, you can use the concat() function to combine the titie and year columns into one output column, along with parentheses. The following statement is an example:

SELECT CONCAT(title," (",year, ")") AS TitleYear FROM cd_collection;

That statement lists both the title and year under one column that has the label TitleYear. Note that there are two strings in the concat() function along with the fieldsthese add whitespace and the parentheses.

In PostgreSQL, the string concatenation function is simply a double pipe (||). The following command is the PostgreSQL equivalent of the preceding MySQL command:

SELECT (genus||'' ('||species||')') AS TitleYear FROM cd_collection;

Note that the parentheses are optional, but they make the statement easier to read. Once again, the strings in the middle and at the end (note the space between the quotes) are used to insert spacing and parentheses between the title and year.

Of course, more often than not, you do not want a list of every single row in the database. Rather, you only want to find rows that match certain characteristics. For this, you add the where statement to the select statement. For example, suppose you want to find all the CDs in the cd_collection table that have a rating of 5. You would use a statement like the following:

SELECT * FROM cd_collection WHERE rating = 5;

Using the table from Figure 21.2, you can see that this query would return the rows for Trouser Jazz, Life for Rent, and The Two Towers. This is a simple query, and SQL is capable of handling queries much more complex than this. Complex queries can be written using logical and and logical or statements. For example, suppose you want to refine the query so it lists only those CDs that were not released in 2003. You would use a query like the following:

SELECT * FROM cd_collection WHERE rating = 5 AND year != 2 003;

In SQL, != means "is not equal to." So once again looking at the table from Figure 21.2, you can see that this query returns the rows for Trouser Jazz and The Two Towers but does not return the row for Life for Rent because it was released in 2003.

So, what if you want to list all the CDs that have a rating of 3 or 4 except those released in the year 2000? This time, you combine logical and and logical or statements:

SELECT * FROM cd_collection WHERE rating = 3 OR rating = 4 AND year != 2000;

This query would return entries for Mind Bomb, Natural Elements, and Combat Rock. However, it wouldn't return entries for Adiemus 4 because it was released in 2000.

One of the most common errors among new database programmers is confusing logical and and logical or. For example, in everyday speech, you might say "Find me all CDs released in 2003 and 2004." At first glance, you might think that if you fed this statement to the database in SQL format, it would return the rows for For All You've Done and Life for Rent. In fact, it would return no rows at all. This is because the database interprets the statement as "Find all rows in which the CD was released in 2003 and was released in 2004." It is, of course, impossible for the same CD to be released twice, so this statement would never return any rows, no matter how many CDs were stored in the table. The correct way to form this statement is with an or statement instead of an and statement.

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