What if you are also root but are logged on as a regular user because you are performing nonadministrative tasks and you need to do something that only the super user can do? The su command is available for this purpose.
A popular misconception is that the su command is short for super user; it just means substitute user. An important but often overlooked distinction is that between su and su -. In the former instance, you become that user but keep your own environmental variables (such as paths). In the latter, you inherit the environment of that user. This is most noticeable when you use su to become the super user, root. Without appending the -, you do not inherit the path variable that includes /bin or /sbin, so you must always enter the full path to those commands when you just su to root.
Because almost all Linux file system security revolves around file permissions, it can be useful to occasionally become a different user with permission to access files belonging to other users or groups or to access special files (such as the communications port /dev/ttyso when using a modem or the sound device /dev/audio when playing a game). You can use the su command to temporarily switch to another user identity, and then switch back.
It is never a good idea to use an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client as the root user, and you might not want to run it using your regular user account. Simply create a special new user just for IRC and su to that user in a terminal widow to launch your IRC client.
The su command spawns a new shell, changing both the UID and GID of the existing user and automatically changes the environmental variables associated with that user, known as inheriting the environment. Refer to Chapter 5 for more information on environmental variables.
The syntax for the su command is as follows:
$ su option username arguments
The man page for su gives more details, but some highlights of the su command are here:
pass a single COMMAND to the shell with -c
-m, --preserve-environment do not reset environment variables
-l a full login simulation for the substituted user, the same as specifying the dash alone
You can invoke the su command in different ways that yield diverse results. By using su alone, you can become root, but you keep your regular user environment. This can be verified by using the printenv command before and after the change. Note that the working directory (you can execute pwd as a command line to print the current working directory) has not changed. By executing the following, you become root and inherit root's environment:
By executing the following, you become that user and inherit the super user's environmenta pretty handy tool. (Remember: Inheriting the environment comes from using the dash in the command; omit that, and you keep your "old" environment.) To become another user, specify a different user's name on the command line:
When leaving an identity to return to your usual user identity, use the exit command. For example, while logged on as a regular user,
$ su - root the system prompts for a password:
When the password is entered correctly, the root user's prompt appears:
To return to the regular user's identity, just type
This takes you to the regular user's prompt:
If you need to allow other users access to certain commands with root privileges, you must give them the root password so that they can use suthat definitely is not a secure solution. The next section describes a more flexible and secure method of allowing normal users to perform selected root tasks.
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