The update notification

Software updates available •:<

Click on the notification icon to show the available updates.

Another way of updating your system, and one that can be quicker than Update Manager, is to use the command line. If you go to the Applications, Accessories menu and select the Terminal option, a blank screen displays. This is the command line (commonly referred to as the terminal) and is one of the most powerful features of Linux. It is covered in more detail in Chapters 5 and 33 ("First Steps with Ubuntu" and "Command Line Masterclass," respectively), so we won't delve too deeply here.

You are greeted with a prompt similar to the one here:

[email protected]:~$

A blinking cursor also displays. Ubuntu is awaiting your first command. Here we want to issue the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

This command tells the package management utility apt-get to check in with the configured repositories and check for any updates for installed software. In a matter of seconds, Ubuntu completes all of this and your screen should look something like this:

$ sudo apt-get update Password:

Get: 1 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security Release.gpg [189B] Get: 2 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security Release [30.9kB] Get: 3 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper Release.gpg [18 9B] Get: 4 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper-updates Release.gpg [18 9B] Get: 5 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper-backports Release.gpg [18 9B] Hit http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper Release

Get: 6 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper-updates Release [30.9kB] Get: 7 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/main Packages [25.1kB] Get: 8 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper-backports Release [19.6kB] Hit http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/main Packages

Get: 9 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/restricted Packages [4571B]

Hit http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/universe Packages

Get: 10 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/multiverse Packages [95.2kB]

Get: 11 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/restricted Packages [4253B]

Get: 12 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/universe Packages [5271B]

Get: 13 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/multiverse Packages [1677B]

Get: 14 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/main Sources [6227B]

Get: 15 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/restricted Sources [974B]

Get: 16 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/universe Sources [639B]

Get: 17 http://security.ubuntu.com dapper-security/multiverse Sources [533B]

Hit http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/main Sources

Get: 18 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/restricted Sources [1478B] Hit http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/universe Sources Hit http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com dapper/multiverse Sources

Get

19

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

20

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

21

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

22

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

23

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

24

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

25

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

26

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

27

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

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28

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

29

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

30

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

31

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

32

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

33

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Get

34

http:

//gb

archive

ubuntu

com

Fetched

2 99kE

in 2s (140kB/s)

Reading

package lists... Done

Now you need to issue the command to upgrade your software by entering the following:

$ apt-get dist-upgrade

Because you have already checked for updates, Ubuntu automatically knows to download and install only the packages it needs. The dist-upgrade option intelligently works with newer packages to ensure that any dependencies that are needed can be satisfied. You can also use the option upgrade instead, but it isn't as smart as dist-upgrade.

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