Change Ubuntus system sounds

Ubuntu doesn't make as heavy use of sounds as some other operating systems but there are still some in use—when you login you hear the familiar music at login, for example.

To change the system sounds, do the following:

1. Click System ^ Preferences ^ Sound, and then click the Sounds tab. As you can see, there are entries for just about any significant system event, such as an error dialog appearing, but most aren't used by default. By clicking the dropdown entry in the list, you can select from a variety of default sounds, or click Select sound file to choose your own.

Ubuntu understands any sound file in .wav format. As you'll see from the file chooser dialog box, there are already quite a few sounds to choose from, and an additional small but basic sound theme can be found in the purple folder.

2. New sound themes can be downloaded from http://www.gnome-look. org (click the Systemsounds[[Author: Sic]] link on the left). Any downloaded sound themes should be copied across to their own folder in /usr/share/sounds. Because this is a root-owned folder, you will have to do this with administrator powers—type [Alt]+(F2 and type gksu nautilus. Then move the new files. Don't forget to close the Nautilus window immediately afterwards because otherwise you might forget and use it to accidentally wipe protected files.

3. Some sounds are distributed as Ogg or MP3 files, which need to be converted to .wav files before Ubuntu can use them (and before you copy them to /usr/share/sounds). To do this you can use the SoundConverter program, which can be installed using Synaptic (search for and install the soundconverter package). Once the program starts (it will be added to the Applications ^ Sound & Video menu), click Edit ^ Preferences and then select WAV from under the Type of result? heading. Then click the Close button. Following this, click the Add File button on the toolbar to locate the Ogg/MP3 files, and then click the Convert button to write-out converted .wav files.

To turn off the annoying beep that sounds whenever you hit a wrong key, see Tip 98, on page 153.

Seeing a true expert use the command-line can be a dazzling experience. The cursor leaps from word to word, and commands are executed in milliseconds. It's a strong reminder that the command-prompt is by no means more primitive than more recent GUI developments. However,

Move around the command-line like a pro being a whizz at the command-line doesn't take that much experience. It just needs know-how.

To jump from word to word, hold down [Ctrl )29 and use the left and right arrow keys. To jump to the beginning of the line, type [Ctrl ]+(a]. To jump to the end, type [Ctrl ]+[e]. [Ctrl ]+[U will delete everything "behind" the cursor, back to the dollar prompt. Try it to see what happens. [Ctrl]+[k] does the opposite—it deletes everything from the cursor to the end of the line. [Ctrl]+[W and [Alt]+[d do the same with any word the cursor is in the middle of—(W deletes everything before the cursor to the beginning of the word, while [d) deletes everything to the end of that particular word. [Alt]+[Backspace] deletes the entire word behind the cursor. If you make a mistake while deleting anything using [Alt] + Backspace] (or any of the other delete keyboard combinations mentioned here), hit [Ctrl [+[y to restore it. [Ctrl ]+[^ will clear the screen (although previous commands will still be viewable by scrolling the terminal window).

One benefit of using a terminal window over a virtual console is that the terminal window records just about everything you type, along with the output. It's just a matter of scrolling the window. However, a little-known fact is that the virtual console has a similar feature, although its memory isn't quite as large. To scroll up or down, type [Shift ]+[Page Up) or[Shift] + Page Down .

For more virtual console-related productivity tips, see Tip 46, on page 109; Tip 179, on page 219; Tip 18, on page 76; Tip 198, on page 236; Tip 207, on page 241; and Tip 233, on page 276.

"Scroll" a virtual console

29. In man pages and other technical documentation, [Ctrl [ is often indicated by a caret symbol (A), or by the letter C. [Alt] is often referred to by the letter M, which stands for "meta" (a relic of older keyboard types used in Unix days).

Do math at the command-line M 233

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