Head and tail

While the head and tail commands are related, they are separate commands that work in opposite ways. By default, the head filename command looks at the first 10 lines of a file, and the tail filename command looks at the last 10 lines of a file. You can specify a different number of lines with the -nxy switch. For example, the tail -n15 /etc/passwd command lists the last 15 lines of the /etc/passwd file.

The tail -f logfile command is commonly used as a way to monitor log messages as they appear. It's often used with files in the /var/log directory.

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