Read/write semaphores are a new feature of Linux 2.4. They are similar to the read/write spin locks described earlier in Section 5.3.4, except that waiting processes are suspended until the semaphore becomes open again.
Many kernel control paths may concurrently acquire a read/write semaphore for reading; however, any writer kernel control path must have exclusive access to the protected resource. Therefore, the semaphore can be acquired for writing only if no other kernel control path is holding it for either read or write access. Read/write semaphores improve the amount of concurrency inside the kernel and improve overall system performance.
The kernel handles all processes waiting for a read/write semaphore in strict FIFO order. Each reader or writer that finds the semaphore closed is inserted in the last position of a semaphore's wait queue list. When the semaphore is released, the processes in the first positions of the wait queue list is checked. The first process is always awoken. If it is a writer, the other processes in the wait queue continue to sleep. If it is a reader, any other reader following the first process is also woken up and gets the lock. However, readers that have been queued after a writer continue to sleep.
Each read/write semaphore is described by a rw_semaphore structure that includes the following fields:
Stores two 16-bit counters. The counter in the most significant word encodes in two's complement form the sum of the number of nonwaiting writers (either 0 or 1) and the number of waiting kernel control paths. The counter in the less significant word encodes the total number of nonwaiting readers and writers.
Points to a list of waiting processes. Each element in this list is a rwsem_waiter structure, including a pointer to the descriptor of the sleeping process and a flag indicating whether the process wants the semaphore for reading or for writing.
A spin lock used to protect the wait queue list and the rw_semaphore structure itself.
The init_rwsem( ) function initializes a rw_semaphore structure by setting the count field to 0, the wait_lock spin lock to unlocked, and wait_list to the empty list.
The down_read( ) and down_write( ) functions acquire the read/write semaphore for reading and writing, respectively. Similarly, the up_read( ) and up_write( ) functions release a read/write semaphore previously acquired for reading and for writing. The implementation of these four functions is long, but easy to follow because it resembles the implementation of normal semaphores; therefore, we avoid describing them.
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