Search Engine Traffic Guide

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Changing the Search Engine

I use Google for my search engine, but I rarely use it for searching book titles. Instead, I prefer to use Amazon.com. But instead of having to visit http www.amazon.com to search for a book I'm interested in, I can click the downward-pointing arrow indicated in Figure 9-17 and select Amazon.com from the list. I type in my book title or keywords, and my search results will be pulled from Amazon.com's database of books, not the entire Internet that Google would provide. Final results are displayed using whatever search site is selected. Figure 9-18 shows that I'm directed straight to Amazon.com's web site the search term I entered (Ubuntu) is passed along, and a presorted list of possible books is provided. If you do this, don't forget to change the search engine back

Websites and Search Engines

Literally thousands of websites exist with information about Linux and Ubuntu. The key to getting the answers you need right away involves using the best search engines and techniques. Knowing how to search can mean the difference between frustration and success when troubleshooting problems. This section provides some Internet search tips and lists Ubuntu- and Linux-related sites sorted by various topics. The lists are not comprehensive, but have been checked and were available at the time of this writing.

Instantly search Google for any word or phrase

Have you ever been reading a document and wanted to look-up something in Google In Firefox you can just highlight the word or phrase, right-click it, and select Search Google. However, what if you're reading, say, a PDF file Or a man page in a terminal window How it works is simple. Highlight any text, in any application, and then click Googlizer's icon to instantly search Google. If a Firefox window is open, a new tab will be added showing the search results. Otherwise Firefox will be started and the search results shown. Give it a try. It's one of those simple things that might just change the way you work forever. Googlizer can be personalized so that it searches the version of Google localized to your country, or even a non-Google search engine. To do this, you'll need to discover the search URL for the engine you want to use. To do so, just perform a search using either the localized version of Google (for example, http www.google.co.uk, if you live in the UK), or a different...

Search Engines

Search engine is a name that applies to a group of hardware and software tools that help you search for World Wide Web sites that contain specific information. A search engine relies on a database of information collected by a Web crawler, a program that regularly looks through the millions of pages that make up the World Wide Web. A search engine must also have a way of collating the information the Web crawler collects so that you can access it quickly, easily, and in a manner that makes it most useful to you. This part of the search engine, called an index, allows you to search for a word, a group of words, or a concept it returns the URLs of Web pages that pertain to what you are searching for. Many different types of search engines are available on the Internet, each with its own set of strengths and weaknesses.

Troubleshooting Post Installation Configuration Problems

Thanks to Google, troubleshooting is no longer the slow process it used to be. You can simply copy and paste error messages into Google and click Find to bring up a whole selection of results similar to the problem you face. Remember, Google is your friend, especially http www.google.com linux, which provides a specialized search engine for Linux. You can also try http marc.info, which browses newsgroup and mailing list archives. Either way, you are likely to come across people who have had the same problem as you.

The SUSE Mailing Lists

The chief problem with the archives is that they are not directly searchable. You can browse the monthly archives, which are sorted by thread for solutions, but this can be time consuming. Fortunately, Google and most other search engines can do site-specific searches. Your favorite search engine may use different syntax check the engine's support page for specific information.

Playing Digital Media and Obeying the

Although DCMA has provided some clout for content providers to legitimately protect their material, such as persuading search engines to drop information about links to illegally posted and copyrighted information, there are times when that clout has been abused. Some copyright holders, it seems, are more than willing to use the DMCA to curtail three rights allowed under pre-DMCA copyright law. Copyright law stipulates the following

Copyright Protection Issues

While DCMA has provided some clout for content providers to legitimately protect their material, such as persuading search engines to drop information about links to illegally posted and copyrighted information, there are times when that clout has been abused. Some copyright holders, it seems, are more than willing to use the DMCA to curtail three rights allowed under pre-DMCA copyright law. Copyright law stipulates

What to Do if Your Modem Isnt Compatible

If you find another model that you think will do the trick, before you commit to it by slapping down the cash, do a Yahoo or Google search with that modem's make and model number, along with the word linux, and see what search results you get. Of course, you can also try out one of the Linux forums and ask about the modem make and model there. There are a lot of people in the same boat, so you are sure to get plenty of opinions and advice.

Troubleshooting Installation Problems

When you're troubleshooting problems, search the SUSE help pages and check the man page for the problem application (along with modules.conf for kernel modules that are not loading). Paste the error message (up to 10 words) into an Internet search engine and see what comes up. Then head over to the Getting Help section of Chapter 1, Welcome to SUSE Linux, to look deeper into the problem.

Proxy news and search servers

Linux provides for proxy, news, and search services with several different software packages. Linux provides a proxy-caching server that caches Web information, which increases the client's access speed, and also reduces bandwidth costs to a company. The most popular proxy-caching server for Linux is called Squid. Squid is a high-performance proxy-caching server that supports FTP, gopher, and HTTP data objects. It is used to cache (store information) that was previously accessed by clients. When a user makes a request for a Web page, Squid checks to see if it has a copy of the requested information in its cache. If Squid has this information, it checks to see if the information is current, updates it if necessary, and then forwards this information to the client. This saves the client time if the information was previously accessed and saves the company money and resources because Squid removes the need to access the requested information from the Internet. Squid also allows the...

The Site Point Newsletters

The SitePoint Tech Times covers the latest news, product releases, trends, tips, and techniques for all technical aspects of Web development. The long-running SitePoint Tribune is a biweekly digest of the business and money making aspects of the Web. Whether you're a freelance developer looking for tips to score that dream contract, or a marketing major striving to keep abreast of changes to the major search engines, this is the newsletter for you. The SitePoint Design View is a monthly compilation of the best in Web design. From new CSS layout methods to subtle PhotoShop techniques, SitePoint's chief designer shares his years of experience in its pages.

Getting Help with the System

The Internet provides many helpful sites related to Linux. Aside from sites that carry various forms of documentation, you can enter an error message that you are having a problem with in a search engine such as Google (www.google.com, or its Linux-specific version at www.google.com linux). Enclose the error message within double quotation marks to improve the quality of the results. The search will likely yield a post concerning your problem and suggestions about how to solve it. See Figure 4-27 on the next page.

Comparing Linux with other operating systems

The search engine Google is a prime example of the ability of Linux to compete with other operating systems. Google is one of the premier search engines on the Internet and it runs on a Linux cluster. Over 60 percent of Web servers run Apache Web Server, which is completely supported under Linux and provides all of the efficiency and reliability of a high-end UNIX server. Linux has proven its capability to provide all the services that are needed in a server or desktop environment.

Understanding and controlling network traffic flow

Here three Web servers are providing Web services to the Internet and they share a network with an NFS server and a database server. What's wrong with this picture Well, several things are wrong. First of all, these machines are still using dumb hub instead of a switch. Second of all, the NFS and database traffic is competing with the incoming and outgoing Web traffic. If a Web application needs database access, it generates database requests, in response to a Web request from the Internet, which in turn reduces from the bandwidth available for other incoming or outgoing Web requests, thus, effectively making the network unnecessarily busy or less responsive. How can you solve such a problem Using a traffic control mechanism, of course First determine what traffic can be isolated in this network. Naturally, the database and NFS traffic is only needed to service the Web servers. In such a case, NFS and database traffic should be isolated so that they don't compete with Web traffic....

Using the Kthememanager Application to Install Themes

The previous section explained how to use the System Settings application's Appearance screens to customize the appearance of the theme that is currently being used on your Kubuntu system. However, many complete alternative themes are available on the Net that enable you to completely replace the theme that is currently being used on your system. My favorites KDE theme sites are KDE-Look.org (www.kde-look.org ), the KDE section of SkinBase.org (www.skinbase.org kde.php), and Freshmeat's KDE themes section (http themes.freshmeat .net browse 57 ). A quick Web search for KDE themes with your favorite search engine will turn up many more sites. Themes for different KDE versions are very different make sure that you select the version that is designed for use with the version of KDE that is present on your system. The 3.x themes should work fine on a default Kubuntu system.

Quick Desktop Guide GNOME

Desktop Search This allows you to search for files, e-mail messages, and even recently visited web pages. The functionality is very similar to the Google Desktop Search that you might have used under Windows, or the Spotlight feature of Apple OS X. Search terms can be formatted in the same way as those on web search engines like Google. For example, use the word AND between two words to ensure that both appear in the search results. To learn more, click the Help menu.

Finding and Reading Software Packages Documentation

Documentation for various software packages is included in the usr share doc directory that directory is stored in another directory that's labeled with the associated package's name. You can find other Linux documentation, known as HOWTOs and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), online by browsing to http www.tldp.org . HOWTO documents contain specific information related to a particular subject, such as printing, setting up a network, programming a serial port, or using a CD-ROM drive with Linux. These documents can be read by using your web browser. Of course, one of the best online tools you can use is a good search engine, such as Google.

System management module

As the SYSM module is a large embedded system, it will boot off a hard disk and use the full features made available to a conventional workstation or server including swapping. The server may be an a Sun, a PowerPC, an ARM, or a conventional PC. It makes little difference which type of architecture is actually used for the SYSM module, since most of its functionality is fairly high level. Because it needs to serve many different applications in parallel while answering rapidly to incoming traffic, the SYSM module runs a kernel configured for preemption. Also, as it serves as a central point for management, it is a multiuser system with an extensive user toolset. The root filesystem on the SYSM module will look similar to the one found on common workstations and servers. In fact, we may even install a conventional server distribution on the SYSM module and configure it to our needs.

Frequently Asked Questions

A Standard practice is to place the e-mail server in the DMZ.A DMZ is usually comprised of a screening router that blocks most attacks (denial-of-service, system scanning, attacks against Microsoft NetBIOS ports, etc.), and a firewall device that authoritatively blocks incoming traffic, effectively separating the internal network from the world. The DMZ exists between the screening router and the firewall. However, it is often a best practice to place the e-mail server behind the firewall itself. If you do this, however, you must make sure your firewall is configured correctly. Otherwise, a malicious user can take advantage of a misconfigured firewall and gain access to your internal network.

Burn Your Ubuntu Files

If you do not have a CD-RW drive or cannot burn CDs, you have other options for using Ubuntu. Ubuntu can be Loaded from a USB drive as well as from an external hard drive. The process for using either of these two methods is beyond the scope of this book. If you would Like to Learn how to do this, utilize your favorite search engine and search for the terms Load Ubuntu from a USB drive. to find out how this is done.

Configuring a Gnome Online Desktop

Small icons beneath your user name represent the configured online services. A search box lets you select from a half dozen different search engines. Popular applications and files you have opened recently appear on the sidebar. You can also see your Google calendar and the people you have invited to be your friends.

O Protocol Usage Monitoring

Conversely, employing an effective method for monitoring network traffic and averages by the categories just mentioned, along with established normal baselines, will make unusual traffic patterns more apparent and easier to recognize. For example, during a typical evening between midnight and 2 00 a.m., the only significant traffic experienced on a network is network backup traffic on various servers. However, in the morning during business hours, the traffic monitoring interface indicates an unusually high amount of SQL traffic from the customer database server to a workstation on the network and a corresponding amount of web traffic from the same workstation to the Internet. After further investigation, you discover that the employee who uses the workstation was not working last night. You ultimately determine that the workstation was infected with a Trojan, which was in the early stages of harvesting confidential customer data and sending it someplace overseas. This example easily...

Freeware or Everything Else

The last bit of free software that I want to cover doesn't really fall under the open source or cloud computing umbrella. This software, which is typically labeled freeware, can be found all over the Internet by doing a Google search for freeware. But beware you'll get millions of search returns for that label, and most of them aren't worth a click of your mouse to investigate. Not all freeware is malicious, but you have to be careful out there when it comes to downloading and installing software on your computer. When it comes to locating freeware, it helps to know a bit more about exactly what you're looking for, and that can often be just as easy as it is difficult. In these instances, I always recommend that you use some of the more trustworthy sites on the Internet that collect, scan, and review freeware. Sites such as http appnr.com allow you to search for freeware based on category. It still makes sense to investigate any piece of freeware you download (including scanning for...

O Reducing Attack Profile

Other firewalls are embedded in specific applications and provide access controls on the ports with which they communicate. ModSecurity is a perfect example of an embedded application firewall. It is a module in Apache that provides a wide variety of functions customized for web traffic, such as intrusion prevention, event correlation, anomaly detection, and so on.

Configuration Support

Users of early Red Hat found the support offered by the company to be disappointingly limited to installation issues and often unresponsive. Red Hat's Web site contained a database of previously answered questions, but problems with the search engine often rendered this database unsearchable.

O Detecting and Preventing Reverse Tunneling

To detect and prevent reverse tunneling, all of the same principles apply as in detecting tunneling, but you are hampered significantly by the likelihood that encryption is being employed. Keep in mind that reverse tunneling could go across any port and may look like encrypted web traffic if sent across port 80.

System Documentation Search

Using the module is as simple as entering a search term and clicking Search. If you choose to Match any in your search, the module will return a list of all pages that it can find that match your query. You may specify which types of documentation you'd like to search, including man pages, Webmin help files, documentation for installed packages, Perl module documentation, and The Book of Webmin either locally or remotely. It will also provide a simple gateway to a Google search.

Searching Directories

To search for files, choose Tools Find. This opens a pane within the file manager window in which you can search for filenames using wildcard matching symbols, such as *. Click Find to run the search and Stop to stop it. The search results are displayed in a pane in the lower half of the file manager window. You can click a file and have it open with its appropriate application. Text files are displayed by the Kate text editor. Images are displayed by Gwenview, and PostScript files by KGhostView. Applications are run. The search program also enables you to save your search results for later reference. You can even select files from the search and add them to an archive.

Storing State on the Client

Figure 4-2 shows how developers can use additional server resources to maintain state when working with a stateless server. Developers can also maintain state on the client in a number of different ways, depending on the protocol. Let's consider HTTP The client for a HTTP transaction is typically a web browser, in various forms. Some web browsers are automated, such as search engine robots, while others are text-only like lynx or wget, or graphical like Netscape or Mozilla. Depending on the client, methods of maintaining state include the following

Browsing the Web with Firefox

Web search with Google or other search engines Bookmarks toolbar Add Live Bookmarks for new feeds Web searches A box for doing keyword searches from Google is built right into the Firefox navigation toolbar. A drop-down menu lets you choose to search Yahoo , Answers.com, Creative Commons, Amazon.com, or eBay. Or select Manage Search Engines from the drop-down list to go to the Firefox Search Engines page, where you can choose from more than 20 different search engines.

The Firefox Web Browser

To the right of the URL box is a search box where you can use different search engines for searching the Web, selected sites, or particular items. A pop-up menu lets you select a search engine. Currently included are Google, Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay, along with Dictionary.com for looking up word definitions. Firefox also features button links and tabbed pages. You can drag the URL from the URL box to the button link bar to create a button with which to quickly access the site. Use this for frequently accessed sites.

Network File Transfer FTP

The Internet has a great many sites open to public access. They contain files anyone can obtain using file transfer programs. Unless you already know where a file is located, however, finding it can be difficult. To search for files on FTP sites, you can use search engines provided by Web sites, such as Yahoo , Google, or Lycos. For Linux software, you can check sites such as freshmeat.net, sourceforge.net, rpmfind.net, freshrpms.net, apps.kde.com, and www.gnome.org. These sites usually search for both Web pages and FTP files.

Vendor Web Sites and Other Resources

Search engines http www.google.com http www.altavista.com http www.northernlight.com http www.yahoo.com Of course, it's impossible to create a static list of resources that will fulfill your ever-changing needs. If standard and familiar sources don't offer what you're looking for, don't hesitate to use a search engine. A targeted search on a quality search site can be surprisingly fruitful.

Will the Server Handle Multiple Requests

An interesting implementation of extending a traditional protocol to handle multiple requests is described in RFC 1854 SMTP Service Extension for Command Pipelining. (You can find it on the Web by doing a Google search for RFC+1854.) In this case, while the server can handle multiple requests from a client, it responds to the requests in order. This eliminates the need for any identifying numbers for the commands responses, but it does require the client to match up the responses with the corresponding command.

Tip To Dash or Not to Dash

Each command on your computer includes a manual pageor man pagethat contains a list of the options available. Man pages are traditionally rather terse and only intended for referencing the different ways the command should be used. For a friendlier introduction to using commands a Google search is recommended.

Jwhois Looks Up Information About an Internet Site

The jwhois utility replaces whois and queries a whois server for information about an Internet site. This utility returns site contact and InterNIC or other registry information that can help you track down the person who is responsible for a site Perhaps that person is sending you or your company spam (page 1056 ). Many sites on the Internet are easier to use and faster than jwhois . Use a browser and search engine to search on whois or go to www.networksolutions.com whois or www.ripe.net perl whois to get started.

Changing your home page

First locate the page on the Web that you want to be the home page. You can get to that page any way you want. You can search with a search engine to find the page you want, you can type the URL in the Location text box, or you may even accidentally end up on a page that you want to make your home page. It doesn't matter.

FTP Clients

The Internet has a great many sites open to public access. They contain files anyone can obtain using file transfer programs, such as NcFTP. Unless you already know where a file is located, however, finding it can be difficult. To search for files on FTP sites, you can use search engines provided by Web sites, such as Yahoo , Excite, Alta Vista, Google, or Lycos. For Linux software, you can check sites such as freshmeat.net, sourceforge.net,

IMAP Servers for Linux

Many of the packages dcacribea in the earlier section, POP Serversfor Linux, include IMLAP eslnctionality. Specifically, UW IMAP, Cyrus IMAP, and Courier all support IMAP as well as POP. In 2002, searches on http www.sofrceforae.net and Web search engines reveal several other IMAP server projects, but many of them are pery new and have no working aode available, or they fill rather esoteric niches, like a proxy server to allow Web browsing via IMAP.

Getting Support for SUSE

The SUSE Linux Portal (http portal.suse.com) is the place to search for answers about using SUSE. To try the free search engine at the site, just select Search. You don't need a user account to search articles related to SUSE Linux, although you do need one to search articles related to Linux business products from SUSE. To get an account, select the Sign Up Here link from the SUSE Linux Portal page. If you have purchased your SUSE distribution, you can use that account to register your SUSE product. Having a registered SUSE product lets you use your account to get free installation information and other support services.

Working with the Search

Another useful feature that Firefox offers is the search bar in the upper-right corner of the program window. By using this search bar, you can search for items on the Internet. By default, the Google search engine is used for that purpose but you can use the drop-down list next to the Google icon to select other web sites and search engines as well. These include pure search engines, such as Yahoo, as well as popular web sites such as Wikipedia and Amazon.com. Figure 4-11 shows the sites that appear by default in the drop-down list.

Iptables A Forward s 172164024 d 172163024

We can expand on the second point a little to give us a different view of the data on our link. Let's now imagine that we class FTP, SMTP, and World Wide Web traffic as essential traffic, and all other traffic as nonessential. If we were interested in seeing the ratio of essential traffic to nonessential traffic, we could do something like

Other Programming Languages

There are, of course, many more programming languages supported in Linux. Whether you are looking for programming in Forth, Lisp, or FORTRAN, a short search on the Net with your favorite search engine should yield rapid results. A good starting point is the Other Languages section in Chapter 13 of Running Linux (O'Reilly).

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

The Linux Documentation Project at http www.tldp.org offers many in-depth resources for configuring and troubleshooting these connections. The Internet search engine Google is also an invaluable tool for dealing with specific questions about these connections. For many other useful references, see the Reference section at the end of this chapter.

The Repository Rundown

If you have enabled these extra repositories and your package is still not there, have a quick hunt around with a search engine to see if you can find a repository (known as a Debian or APT repository) for your package. If you find one, use the Repositories dialog box you have just played with to add the new repository, and then use Synaptic to install the package.

Getting Support for SUSE and openSUSE

The openSUSE.org Wiki (http en.opensuse.org) is the place to search for answers about openSUSE. To try the free search engine at the site, just enter your term in the Search box. Check the news and events box for the latest news about openSUSE. For a more interactive experience, select the Communicate link to gain access to mailing lists, online forums, IRC chats, and other tools for connecting you to the openSUSE community You can also follow links to PlanetSUSE (http planetsuse.org), where you can read blogs from members of the openSUSE community If you are really stuck, try the openSUSE Support Database (http opensuse.org SDB SDB).

Configuring a DialUp Connection Manually

Many software modems will not work with Linux because the manufacturers will not release programming information about them or provide Linux drivers. An external serial port modem or ISA bus modem will almost always work USB and PCI modems are still problematic. It is suggested that you do a thorough Google search using your modem's name and model number to see how others have solved problems with that particular modem. Links to software modem compatibility sites appear at the end of this chapter.

Controlling Web Robots

Your Web site isn't always accessed by human users. Many search engines index your Web site by using Web robots programs that traverse Web sites for indexing purposes. These robots often index information they shouldn't and sometimes don't index what they should. The following section examines ways to control (most) robot access to your Web site. Frequently used search engines such as Yahoo , AltaVista, Excite, and Infoseek use automated robot or spider programs that search Web sites and index their contents. This is usually desirable, but on occasion, you may find yourself wanting to stop these robots from accessing a certain part of your Web site. If content in a section of your Web site frequently expires (daily, for example), you don't want the search robots to index it. When a user at the search-engine site clicks a link to the old content and finds that the link doesn't exist, she isn't happy. That user may then go to the next link without returning to your site. This protocol...

My Remote Control Doesnt Work

The first step is to determine which LIRC driver is required for your particular remote control. Take a look at the list of remotes on the LIRC site at www.lirc.org or use your favorite search engine if it is not listed on the site. LIRC includes a number of built-in drivers, and you can see which ones are included by running the following command

Enhanced Web Browsing Internet Keywords

Searching the web using Konqueror is very practical. Konqueror defines a number of search engines for you, all with a specific shortcut. To search for a certain topic on the Internet, enter the shortcut and the keyword separated by a colon. The relevant page containing the search results is then displayed.

Optimized for the

Galeon is primarily designed to make surfing the Internet as convenient as possible. In the default configuration, Galeon presents a second toolbar, enabling quick access to the popular Google search engine and its news and image search function. It can also offer access to an online dictionary and use the bookmarklets. This is made possible by small JavaScript functions built into Galeon, for example, find out how current a page is or allow the Internet site to slowly scroll down the screen.

The Navigation Toolbar

The next element to the right is the location bar in which to enter Internet addresses (URLs) or search terms. If you enter a search term then press 'Search', Mozilla searches the web for that term using the search engine set in the preferences. After having visited a number of sites, directly select their addresses again by clicking the down arrow, which opens a dropdown list. Mozilla stores the contents of this list so it is available in your next browser session. Start typing a previous address then hit (Jab) to complete it automatically.

Coming up with an action plan

Let's say you're running a 30-person insurance claims-processing office, with lots of medical and financial records stored on four different file servers (all four running Windows 2003 Server). The company processes its own e-mail and Web services, outsources spam and virus-filtering to a third-party, and runs a few custom applications to handle the ordinary course of business. Staff members also use Windows XP Professional computers and laptops for daily activities. The office does not have any Macintosh or Unix computers (although e-mail may be moved to an open-source solution, time permitting). There's a firewall for NAT. Access Control Lists (ACLs) block everything except inbound mail to the mail server and Web traffic to the Web server.

Organization Enumeration

Apart from gathering this information via Internet search engines, corporate information websites such as http www.corporateinformation.com, http biz.yahoo.com, and http www.hoovers.com provide the public with detailed company information such as business summaries, financial blogs, analyst estimates and stock market statistics, insider information, executives' names and pay details, news headlines, and reports. Websites such as http www.internalmemos.com allow attackers to search for internal memos, leaked emails, and rumors about specific organizations, providing them with a clear insight into the business side of the organization, which may lead to social engineering attacks being performed with much greater precision.

Personnel Enumeration

Some Internet search engines provide a People Search option, such as http www .zoominfo.com, where you can almost instantly create profiles of people based on information found on the Internet. This, however, is not the biggest threat. Personal networking websites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Orkut, and MySpace, allow individuals to develop their professional and social networks. These sites also provide an attacker with the ability to search for and enumerate an enormous amount of information about individuals. Facebook (http www.facebook.com) is a prime example of a social networking website where an attacker is able to search for people based on name, sex, town, state, country, zip code, relationship status, whether they are looking for a relationship, political and religious views, interests, activities, music, movies, TV shows, books, education, land phone and mobile phone, email address, company name, or position.

Taking Your Site Public with Dynamic DNS

You can make your Web site public by renting server space from an ISP or by obtaining your own domain name and hosting the site from your Apache server. When you rent machine space from an ISP, you pay not only for the room your data takes up, but also for the Web traffic to your site. If you have a small and simple site with little traffic, that's not a problem. If you have a large or complex site with a lot of traffic, renting server space can get costly.

Searching the World Wide

Searches are a big part of web browsing, and people have different search preferences. Search engines such as Lycos, Yahoo, and Google are popular sites you can visit to conduct a search. To save time, Konqueror offers two shortcuts for web searching internet keywords and web shortcuts. Because they can help make your search more economical, let's talk a bit about each. Internet keywords are words or phrases typed into the Location bar that redirect your browser to a related site. Companies often pay for internet keywords to drive traffic to their sites with these redirects. For example, you could simply type CNN in an empty Location bar and be taken directly to http www.cnn.com If Konqueror fails to match an internet keyword, however, it will automatically use the search engine you have designated in the Configure Konqueror menu as the default (to be explained shortly). A web shortcut is a form of shorthand for requesting a web search of a specific topic on a specific search engine...

Troubleshooting Your Cluster Environment

If you can spare a few bucks, it is also interesting to get a subscription to Novell's support knowledgebase on DVD. With a monthly update you get access to an integrated search engine on your own computer that will search through the TIDs, product documentation, application notes, and cool solutions.

Configuring a DNS Server

We have talked about a few backbone services of the Internet in this book, but one of the most important is the role of the nameserver. Imagine life without names going to your favorite search engine (www.google.com) would involve having to type in http 66.102.11.104. Not so bad, but if you have ten favorite sites, you would have to remember all of those addresses. As TCP IP needs to use IP addresses to make a connection to another machine, DNS is important to bridge the gap between the human and the computer. The role of the Domain Name System (DNS) is not just to translate names to IP addresses, but also to form the basis for mail server lookups and reverse name lookups (IP addresses to names).

Customizing Konqueror

Konqueror offers many ways to customize its appearance and functionality, based on individual preferences and needs. A single area within Konqueror has been designed for managing most aspects of its operation, the KDE Control Module. You can access it from the Settings menu by choosing a submenu titled Configure Konqueror. Selecting this option actually launches the Settings module. Apart from allowing you to adjust your home page, search engine, and plugins, as you have already learned, this module also lets you adjust the way that your browser displays links and fonts, interacts with Java, and manages cookies from the sites you visit.

Bootloader Problems and Kernel Oops

In these situations, Google is your friend. Chances are quite good that someone else has seen the error message(s) you have, and there are likely documented solutions out there. Head to your favorite search engine and type in the error message with quotes around it. Be aware that Google has a 10-word limit on search terms, so you may need to focus on the keywords in the error message.

NDIS Wrapper Tips and Tricks

For me, one of the most frustrating sets of experiences has been with a variety of LinkSys WPC54G wireless PCMCIA cards, all of which I've gotten working, but only after significant driver gymnastics, head scratching, Google searches, and commiseration with fellow Linux devotees. (I was originally planning to title this section The LinkSys WPC54G, or How I Spent My Summer Vacation, but I am trying to generalize what I've learned rather than simply provide a single set of instructions.) By the way, these are great cards that support 802.11g (and therefore 802.11b), and because I typically find LinkSys hardware to be inexpensive and reliable, I often recommend them to friends. Unfortunately, a HUGE problem with these cards is that LinkSys has used a variety of wireless chips in them over the years, so they often use different drivers, each of which seems to require its own tweaks to get it to work with the ndiswrapper module.

Purpose of the internal firewall

The internal firewall protects the internal network from outside access. It forwards non-local traffic to the DMZ and restricts incoming traffic. This firewall should be configured to do the following Allow only incoming traffic that has been generated in response to internal requests. Incoming packets to this firewall must not have SYN bit set.

Understanding FTP Servers

Originally, one drawback with FTP servers was that when people looked for a file or a document on the Internet, they had to know which FTP server held the file they were looking for. Tools such as Gopher and WAIS helped in searches. With the advent of the Web, however, users can now rely on a variety of search engines and links from Web pages to help identify FTP servers that have the files they want. In fact, when you download files by clicking a link from a Web page, you may not even be aware that the

Using TCPDump to Capture Specific Protocols

Throughout this section, I'll be using a few different programs to generate traffic for TCPDump to capture. My primary tool for TCP-related captures will be telnet. I'll use telnet to generate traffic and mirror what the real protocol (or close to it) does in the real world. Generation of DNS queries will be accomplished using both the dig command and the host command. The ping and TRaceroute commands will be used. Finally, the hping2 command will be used to generate ICMP traffic as well as other interesting packets, especially in the attack section. With the exception of hping2, all of these programs are installed on most major Linux distributions.

Serving Dynamic Content with CGI Scripts

No doubt you've encountered web pages that are composed of dynamic content. The hallmark of such a site is that its content varies from one user to another. For instance, the shopping cart page on a web merchant's site is dynamic content. Web search engines rely on dynamic content after all, your search may be entirely unique. Given the popularity of both Apache and dynamic content, it shouldn't be surprising that Apache supports delivering dynamic content. Doing so requires telling Apache how to deliver dynamic content, as well as creating that content. Unfortunately, dynamic content is one of the riskier web server configurations, so you must be aware of the dangers it poses.

Types of Dynamic Content

Another dynamic content element is important web forms. These are web pages that include text-entry fields, buttons, selection lists, and so on. Most dynamic content relies on web forms to enable users to enter information to be delivered to the web server for use in generating dynamic content. For instance, a web search engine includes, at a minimum, a text entry field and a button to initiate a search. Like other web pages, web forms are created using HTML. Effective use of GCI scripts requires some knowledge of web forms.

Configuring Your Firewall to Filter Network Packets

As far as incoming traffic is concerned, you have many options. Many systems administrators want to create a firewall that forbids all incoming traffic, except for the TCP and UDP packets necessary when building up and tearing down a network connection. For example, if you want to allow internal clients to allow access to the Web, you will need to allow remote hosts to make connections to your firewall. This involves allowing remote hosts to open up their local ports above 1023 to access your systems at ports above 1023.Therefore, you should take the following steps 1. Configure your firewall to prohibit all incoming traffic from accessing any services below port 1023.The most secure firewall will not allow any connections to these ports. 2. Forbid all incoming traffic unless it is part of an already established session. In Ipchains, the -y option will do this. In Iptables, you would use the --SYN option. Each of these options will have the firewall match and discard any incoming...

Monitoring the Web server

Like any server service running on any computer, some monitoring must take place so you have warning signs when something isn't working correctly. This mostly occurs through the log files. All log files reside in the var log apache directory. The logs give you signs of attack, help to diagnose improper configuration settings, and provide valuable information about site traffic.

A21 Web Sites Devoted to GNULinux A211 MUO

And, of course, remember about your favorite search engines. Generally speaking, it is the most practical information seeking tool. A few carefully chosen keywords in a search engine will often produce the needed answers to your specific problem. In Google, you can even make a GNU Linux-oriented search by typing http www.google.com linux (http wOT.google.com linux ).

Where to Go from Here

Furthermore, you should be able to perform web searches to find additional information. The Internet is by far the best source for specific information on ever-changing environments and commands. For example, you can find an early paper by Steven Bourne, creator of the Bourne shell, at laku19.adsl.netsonic.fi era unix shell.html, or the Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide at www.tldp.org LDP abs html .

Writing Java Servlets

A Web search engine such as Google (www.google.com ) is a good example of an interactive Web page the user enters one or more keywords, and the Google search engine returns an HTML document containing links to other Web pages that contain the search words. The HTML document returned by the search engine is dynamic because the contents of that page depend on what search words the user types it's not a predefined, static document.

Netfilter Building Blocks

INPUT This chain applies to all incoming traffic that is destined for the server itself. It does Figure 12-1 is a schematic that provides an overview of the place where the three default chains are functioning. The NIC positions in the figure indicate that the network interface card is involved. As you can see in the figure, the INPUT chain applies to incoming traffic before it encounters server processes, the OUTPUT chain involves outgoing traffic after it leaves the server processes, and the FORWARD chain involves traffic that goes from one network card directly to another.

Making Fedora Distribution CDs

Sure you can download RPM packages off the Web whenever you need them, but it's a whole lot easier (and quicker) to have your own set of distribution CDs, handy and ready for use. You no longer have to search Web sites for the packages (hundreds of them exist) that are included with your distribution just pop in the CD and unpack.

Runtime Errors Boot Loader Problems and Kernel Oops

Excellent documentation on the Internet exists for troubleshooting just about every type of error that LILO, GRUB, or the kernel could give during boot. The best way to find this documentation is to go to your favorite search engine and type in the keywords of the error you received. You will need to adjust the keywords you use as you focus your search.

Changing the Internet Service Provider

Assuming that our old ISP isn't particularly cooperative but the new one is, we can use a configured or 6in6 tunnel to the new ISP while the old ISP still operates our uplink. We need to route all outbound traffic through this tunnel in the case that the old ISP uses ingress filtering and drops our outbound packets if their source address is from the new prefix. Incoming traffic to the old prefix will arrive untunneled and traffic to the new prefix will be tunneled to us. This provides us with the necessary transition period to set up the new prefix. When we only use the new prefix and the tunnel as our uplink, then we can switch our uplink to the new ISP, deconfigure the tunnel and resume normal operations. As long as the old ISP doesn't delay the actual switch to the new uplink and cases have been reported we can switch to the new service provider with a scheduled, very short loss of external network connectivity.

The Linux Source Tree

Kernei-parameters.txt This file is a list of most of the arguments that you can pass at boot time to configure kernel or hardware settings, but it does not appear too useful at first glance because it is just a list. However, knowing that a parameter exists and might relate to something you are looking for can assist you in tracking down more information because now you have terms to enter into an Internet search engine such as http www.google.com linux.

Tutorial Interception Proxying

Ordinarily, when using Squid on a network to cache Web traffic, browsers must be configured to use the Squid system as a proxy. This type of configuration is known as traditional proxying. In many environments, this is simply not an acceptable method of implementation. Therefore Squid provides a method to operate as an interception proxy, or transparently, which means users do not even need to be aware that a proxy is in place. Web traffic is redirected from port 80 to the port where Squid resides, and Squid acts like a standard Web server for the browser. Using Squid transparently is a two part process, requiring first that Squid be configured properly to accept non-proxy requests, and second that Web traffic gets redirected to the Squid port. The first part of configuration is performed in the Squid module, while the second part can be performed in the Linux Firewall module. That is, assuming you are using Linux, otherwise you should consult the Squid FAQ Transparent Caching...

Google Is Your Friend

Some of the fastest and most comprehensive search engines on the Web are powered by Linux, so it makes sense to use the best available resources. Out of the myriad number of websites with search engines, http google.com stands out from the crowd, with millions of users per month. The site uses advanced hardware and software to bring speed and efficiency to your searches. If you are looking for specific Linux answers, take advantage of Google's Linux page at http google.com linux. Why is Google (named after a math number) so powerful You can get a quick overview from the Google folks at http www.google.com technology . Part of its success is because of great algorithms, good programming, and simple interface design but most users really seem to appreciate Google's uncanny capability to provide links to what you are looking for in the first page of a search return. Google's early success was also assured because the site ran its search engine on clusters of thousands of PCs running a...

Major OnLine Resources

A good place to look for RFCs is the Kashpureff Family's site, at http www.kashpureff.org nic , which has a copy of all RFCs and drafts, as well as a search engine to search for keywords through either RFCs or drafts. Cabletron has a repository of RFCs and drafts. Drafts are indexed by subject, while STDs & RFCs by title & number. A search engine is supplied to search through titles or bodies.

Newsgroups Where People Talk About christianity

The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located at Trondheim, has an FTP search engine on the web, located at http ftpsearch.ntnu.no ftpsearch, that can find files on anonymous FTP servers world wide. Other files search engine are located at http www.filez.com and which can find files for specific platforms (e.g. unix, windows, mac) or specific formats (e.g. wav, midi, fonts, source code).

Configuring Squid for SSL Traffic

When users are sending ordinary web traffic, Squid can analyze the traffic. With SSL traffic this is much more difficult, because most of the data sent between the user and web site is encrypted. Therefore, the proxy cannot analyze the SSL traffic for forbidden content. Also, SSL-encrypted data that comes back to the proxy cannot be kept in its cache. For users, however, it is important that SSL traffic is sent through the proxy server to the Internet.

Using Squid As a Transparent Proxy

In corporate environments, it is not a good idea to configure all the clients in the network manually to use the proxy. In these cases, you can configure a transparent proxy. With a transparent proxy, you don't need any configuration on the client, because all web traffic is sent through the proxy automatically. The best way to configure a transparent proxy is by configuring the packet filter on your router. If iptables on a Linux router is used, you can configure a transparent proxy with the following rule

Iptables NAT Semantics

Masquerading sits on top of forwarding as a separate kernel service. Traffic is masqueraded in both directions, but not symmetrically. Masquerading is unidirectional. Only outgoing connections can be initiated. As traffic from local machines passes through the firewall to a remote location, the internal machine's IP address and source port are replaced with the address of the firewall machine's external network interface and a free source port on the interface. The process is reversed for incoming responses. Before the packet is forwarded to the internal machine, the firewall's destination IP address and port are replaced with the real IP address and port of the internal machine participating in the connection. The firewall machine's port determines whether incoming traffic, all of which is addressed to the firewall machine, is destined to the firewall machine itself or to a particular local host.

News Proxy and Search Servers

Dig, known officially as ht Dig, is a Web indexing and search system designed for small networks or intranets. Dig is not considered a replacement for full-scale Internet search systems, such as Lycos, Infoseek, or Alta Vista. Unlike Web server-based search engines, Dig can span several Web servers at a site. Dig was developed at San Diego State University and is distributed free under the GNU Public License. You can obtain information and documentation at www.htdig.org, and you can download software packages-including RPM packages-from ftp.htdig.org.

Web Services Enumeration and Manipulation

The simplest way of finding this file for an organization, if you are lucky, is by using the advanced options in a search engine. In Google you can use either of the following search terms. An example is shown in Figure 13-7. This requires that the organization has either made the WSDL file available for a public web service or accidentally leaked the file onto the Internet due to weak ACLs, where search engines and attackers can find it. You could also find this file by crawling an organization's web application to determine whether a link exists to the WSDL file, as well as by brute-forcing common WSDL-related filenames and directories, or by appending the 7wsdl parameter to the end of each web application program. Figure 13-8 Example WSDL file for a Name Search web service Figure 13-9 post data for a request to the Name Search web service

Using the Strigi Desktop Search Application

Just as search engines make it possible to find information on specific topics regardless of where it is located on the Internet, desktop search applications such as Mac OS X's Spotlight, Microsoft Windows' Desktop Search, or Google's Desktop Search make it easy to find information that is located somewhere on your desktop computer. Online search engines and desktop search applications actually work in a very similar way they crawl the information that they are responsible for and create an index of that information against which you can submit queries.

Searching files with grep

When using or administering a system, you often need to look for lines in a file that contain a certain string. In the first example that follows, you simply find the lines in the file that contain the string bible. The examples with tail are examples of piping the output from one command to another a very powerful concept that was also introduced in the section Advanced shell features, earlier in this chapter. In the first case, you get the output from the tail command, and you just select the lines that contain 404. In the second, you select the lines that do not include the string googlebot the -v option indicates not. In the last example, the A symbol represents the start of a line, so you see only the lines that do not start with the symbol . (The character identifies lines that are comments in shell scripts and most Linux configuration files. This example therefore displays the lines of the configuration file that are actually active.) tail Looks in the last 100 lines of the web...

Incoming TCP Connection State Filtering

Incoming TCP packet acceptance rules can make use of the connection state flags associated with TCP connections. All TCP connections adhere to the same set of connection states. These states differ between client and server because of the three-way handshake during connection establishment. As such, the firewall can distinguish between incoming traffic from remote clients and incoming traffic from remote servers.

Simple Key management for Internet ProtocolsSKIP

A good search engine could supply further info. Some other good search engines are AltaVista at http www.altavista.digital.com Hotbot at http www.hotbot.com The Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library site is an archive of computer science articles, which can be searched through using an impressive search engine. http www.ncstrl.org

S3 Make Ubuntu safe for children to use

On the other hand, if there's a site that Dansguardian lets through that perhaps it shouldn't, then you can add it in exactly the same way to the file etc dansguardian bannedurllist. You might choose to add various search engines to this list if you wish to stop children being able to seek-out objectionable material. For example, to stop Google being used, you could add google.com to the list. Bear in mind that you'll also need to

Building a Standalone Package

To do is to use a search engine such as Clusty or Google to try to locate someone who has already built the application that you're looking for and offers it as a DEB package that you can install on your Linux system. Some trust issues are involved in this scenario you have to hope that the person who built the package did it correctly, and also that they didn't hack the software in some evil way. The former is usually the case, and the latter has never happened to me, but you never know. So, it's far safer to simply build and install the package yourself. As they say in my favorite computer-related movie, the key to building software is to Use the source, Luke . Your favorite search engine should make it easy to locate the search with a query like package-name source download. In my case, the Clusty search engine identified that I could find the source code for XMMS at www.xmms.org, from the URL I would normally retrieve this using a browser, but for the purposes of this example, you...

Using the Tracker Desktop Search Application

Just as search engines make it possible to find information on specific topics regardless of where the information is located on the Internet, desktop search applications make it easy to find information that is located somewhere on your desktop computer. Online search engines and desktop search applications actually work in a very similar way they crawl the information that they are responsible for and create an index of that information against which you can submit queries.

Using the Konqueror Browser

One of my favorite Konqueror features of all time is its support for Web shortcuts. These are special strings that enable you to go directly to a portion of a site without explicitly typing an entire address. For example, to search for something using the Google search engine, you can simply type gg followed by what you want to search for in the location bar to go directly to the search results for those terms. Some other great shortcuts are vi word(s) Does a search for the specified word(s) using Vivisimo's Clusty search engine and Web site at http vivisimo.com.

Installing and Configuring a Firewall

The gufw tool provides several tabs that make it easy for you to create various types of rules without having to understand the syntax of the kernels iptables rules. Once you enable a firewall, all incoming traffic is disabled by default, which is secure but probably not what you want if you plan to support network services such as incoming SSH connections, incoming FTP, and so on. Note that you do not need to select the Allow incoming radio button shown in Figure 25-27 to enable incoming traffic. The radio buttons at the top left of the gufw dialog identify the default behavior of your system. Any rules that you subsequently define represent exceptions to that rule. For example, to quickly create a rule that allows incoming SSH connections, make sure that the Simple tab is selected in the Add a new rule section, enter ssh in the text entry field for this rule, and make sure that you are allowing traffic in both directions, as shown in Figure 25-28.

Flex Builder For Linux Kernel

After installation, the IDE is accessible via Tools Selenium IDE in the Firefox menu. To illustrate the IDE functionality, let's re-create the above Google search test case using the IDE. In order to do this, you simply should run the IDE, check that the record button is on, open the http www.google.com page, type selenium and click Google Search. As you type, the Selenium IDE captures what you do (Figure 3).

Reading Documentation with Konqueror

But Konqueror doesn't stop here when it comes to getting information. Want to use a search engine on the Internet To find pages about Tux (the Linux mascot) on, let's say, the AltaVista search engine, simply type the following in a mini command-line or the Konqueror URL entry line and a Konqueror window with (at the time of this writing) 1,319,135 search results pops up. This works with many other search engines as well. See Table 11-1 for some of the most popular search engines together with their prefixes. Table 11-1. Popular search engines and their prefixes Search Engine AltaVista If your favorite search engine is not configured (which is quite unlikely, actually), you can configure it yourself by opening a Konqueror window and selecting Settings, Configure Konqueror, and then Enhanced Browsing. The Enable Web Shortcuts section on that configuration page contains all the preconfigured search engines and even lets you add your own.

Httpinspect a preprocessor for HTTP

We recommend installing and using the http_inspect preprocessor. Using http_inspect normalizes all packets containing different forms of HTTP communication into a state that Snort can easily compare and scan through its rules. A huge amount of Web traffic crosses the Net, and many attacks rely on the HTTP protocol as their transmission medium. To configure your Snort system so that it normalizes Web traffic, you need to put a few lines in your snort.conf configuration file that look something like the following

Using filtering or proxy firewalls

In this way, the firewall hides from the Internet server the fact that your computer even exists. Furthermore, a proxy firewall will commonly handle all incoming connections from the Internet (such as Web traffic, FTP downloads, and e-mail deliveries). Again, this is to minimize the visibility of your internal network to the outside world.

SEO Guide for Top Rankings

SEO Guide for Top Rankings

Search engines are special sites on the web that are designed to help people find information stored on other sites. There are differences in the ways various search engines work. Learn more about this topic within this guide.

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