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Websites and Search Engines

Literally thousands of websites exist with information about Linux and Ubuntu. The key to getting the answers you need right away involves using the best search engines and techniques. Knowing how to search can mean the difference between frustration and success when troubleshooting problems. This section provides some Internet search tips and lists Ubuntu- and Linux-related sites sorted by various topics. The lists are not comprehensive, but have been checked and were available at the time of this writing.

Instantly search Google for any word or phrase

Have you ever been reading a document and wanted to look-up something in Google In Firefox you can just highlight the word or phrase, right-click it, and select Search Google. However, what if you're reading, say, a PDF file Or a man page in a terminal window How it works is simple. Highlight any text, in any application, and then click Googlizer's icon to instantly search Google. If a Firefox window is open, a new tab will be added showing the search results. Otherwise Firefox will be started and the search results shown. Give it a try. It's one of those simple things that might just change the way you work forever. Googlizer can be personalized so that it searches the version of Google localized to your country, or even a non-Google search engine. To do this, you'll need to discover the search URL for the engine you want to use. To do so, just perform a search using either the localized version of Google (for example, http, if you live in the UK), or a different...

Changing the Search Engine

I use Google for my search engine, but I rarely use it for searching book titles. Instead, I prefer to use But instead of having to visit http to search for a book I'm interested in, I can click the downward-pointing arrow indicated in Figure 9-17 and select from the list. I type in my book title or keywords, and my search results will be pulled from's database of books, not the entire Internet that Google would provide. Final results are displayed using whatever search site is selected. Figure 9-18 shows that I'm directed straight to's web site the search term I entered (Ubuntu) is passed along, and a presorted list of possible books is provided. If you do this, don't forget to change the search engine back

Search Engines

Search engine is a name that applies to a group of hardware and software tools that help you search for World Wide Web sites that contain specific information. A search engine relies on a database of information collected by a Web crawler, a program that regularly looks through the millions of pages that make up the World Wide Web. A search engine must also have a way of collating the information the Web crawler collects so that you can access it quickly, easily, and in a manner that makes it most useful to you. This part of the search engine, called an index, allows you to search for a word, a group of words, or a concept it returns the URLs of Web pages that pertain to what you are searching for. Many different types of search engines are available on the Internet, each with its own set of strengths and weaknesses.

Troubleshooting Post Installation Configuration Problems

Thanks to Google, troubleshooting is no longer the slow process it used to be. You can simply copy and paste error messages into Google and click Find to bring up a whole selection of results similar to the problem you face. Remember, Google is your friend, especially http linux, which provides a specialized search engine for Linux. You can also try http, which browses newsgroup and mailing list archives. Either way, you are likely to come across people who have had the same problem as you.

The SUSE Mailing Lists

The chief problem with the archives is that they are not directly searchable. You can browse the monthly archives, which are sorted by thread for solutions, but this can be time consuming. Fortunately, Google and most other search engines can do site-specific searches. Your favorite search engine may use different syntax check the engine's support page for specific information.

Playing Digital Media and Obeying the

Although DCMA has provided some clout for content providers to legitimately protect their material, such as persuading search engines to drop information about links to illegally posted and copyrighted information, there are times when that clout has been abused. Some copyright holders, it seems, are more than willing to use the DMCA to curtail three rights allowed under pre-DMCA copyright law. Copyright law stipulates the following

Copyright Protection Issues

While DCMA has provided some clout for content providers to legitimately protect their material, such as persuading search engines to drop information about links to illegally posted and copyrighted information, there are times when that clout has been abused. Some copyright holders, it seems, are more than willing to use the DMCA to curtail three rights allowed under pre-DMCA copyright law. Copyright law stipulates

What to Do if Your Modem Isnt Compatible

If you find another model that you think will do the trick, before you commit to it by slapping down the cash, do a Yahoo or Google search with that modem's make and model number, along with the word linux, and see what search results you get. Of course, you can also try out one of the Linux forums and ask about the modem make and model there. There are a lot of people in the same boat, so you are sure to get plenty of opinions and advice.

Troubleshooting Installation Problems

When you're troubleshooting problems, search the SUSE help pages and check the man page for the problem application (along with modules.conf for kernel modules that are not loading). Paste the error message (up to 10 words) into an Internet search engine and see what comes up. Then head over to the Getting Help section of Chapter 1, Welcome to SUSE Linux, to look deeper into the problem.

The Site Point Newsletters

The SitePoint Tech Times covers the latest news, product releases, trends, tips, and techniques for all technical aspects of Web development. The long-running SitePoint Tribune is a biweekly digest of the business and money making aspects of the Web. Whether you're a freelance developer looking for tips to score that dream contract, or a marketing major striving to keep abreast of changes to the major search engines, this is the newsletter for you. The SitePoint Design View is a monthly compilation of the best in Web design. From new CSS layout methods to subtle PhotoShop techniques, SitePoint's chief designer shares his years of experience in its pages.

Getting Help with the System

The Internet provides many helpful sites related to Linux. Aside from sites that carry various forms of documentation, you can enter an error message that you are having a problem with in a search engine such as Google (, or its Linux-specific version at linux). Enclose the error message within double quotation marks to improve the quality of the results. The search will likely yield a post concerning your problem and suggestions about how to solve it. See Figure 4-27 on the next page.

Comparing Linux with other operating systems

The search engine Google is a prime example of the ability of Linux to compete with other operating systems. Google is one of the premier search engines on the Internet and it runs on a Linux cluster. Over 60 percent of Web servers run Apache Web Server, which is completely supported under Linux and provides all of the efficiency and reliability of a high-end UNIX server. Linux has proven its capability to provide all the services that are needed in a server or desktop environment.

Quick Desktop Guide GNOME

Desktop Search This allows you to search for files, e-mail messages, and even recently visited web pages. The functionality is very similar to the Google Desktop Search that you might have used under Windows, or the Spotlight feature of Apple OS X. Search terms can be formatted in the same way as those on web search engines like Google. For example, use the word AND between two words to ensure that both appear in the search results. To learn more, click the Help menu.

Finding and Reading Software Packages Documentation

Documentation for various software packages is included in the usr share doc directory that directory is stored in another directory that's labeled with the associated package's name. You can find other Linux documentation, known as HOWTOs and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), online by browsing to http . HOWTO documents contain specific information related to a particular subject, such as printing, setting up a network, programming a serial port, or using a CD-ROM drive with Linux. These documents can be read by using your web browser. Of course, one of the best online tools you can use is a good search engine, such as Google.

Burn Your Ubuntu Files

If you do not have a CD-RW drive or cannot burn CDs, you have other options for using Ubuntu. Ubuntu can be Loaded from a USB drive as well as from an external hard drive. The process for using either of these two methods is beyond the scope of this book. If you would Like to Learn how to do this, utilize your favorite search engine and search for the terms Load Ubuntu from a USB drive. to find out how this is done.

Configuration Support

Users of early Red Hat found the support offered by the company to be disappointingly limited to installation issues and often unresponsive. Red Hat's Web site contained a database of previously answered questions, but problems with the search engine often rendered this database unsearchable.

System Documentation Search

Using the module is as simple as entering a search term and clicking Search. If you choose to Match any in your search, the module will return a list of all pages that it can find that match your query. You may specify which types of documentation you'd like to search, including man pages, Webmin help files, documentation for installed packages, Perl module documentation, and The Book of Webmin either locally or remotely. It will also provide a simple gateway to a Google search.

Searching Directories

To search for files, choose Tools Find. This opens a pane within the file manager window in which you can search for filenames using wildcard matching symbols, such as *. Click Find to run the search and Stop to stop it. The search results are displayed in a pane in the lower half of the file manager window. You can click a file and have it open with its appropriate application. Text files are displayed by the Kate text editor. Images are displayed by Gwenview, and PostScript files by KGhostView. Applications are run. The search program also enables you to save your search results for later reference. You can even select files from the search and add them to an archive.

Storing State on the Client

Figure 4-2 shows how developers can use additional server resources to maintain state when working with a stateless server. Developers can also maintain state on the client in a number of different ways, depending on the protocol. Let's consider HTTP The client for a HTTP transaction is typically a web browser, in various forms. Some web browsers are automated, such as search engine robots, while others are text-only like lynx or wget, or graphical like Netscape or Mozilla. Depending on the client, methods of maintaining state include the following

Browsing the Web with Firefox

Web search with Google or other search engines Bookmarks toolbar Add Live Bookmarks for new feeds Web searches A box for doing keyword searches from Google is built right into the Firefox navigation toolbar. A drop-down menu lets you choose to search Yahoo ,, Creative Commons,, or eBay. Or select Manage Search Engines from the drop-down list to go to the Firefox Search Engines page, where you can choose from more than 20 different search engines.

The Firefox Web Browser

To the right of the URL box is a search box where you can use different search engines for searching the Web, selected sites, or particular items. A pop-up menu lets you select a search engine. Currently included are Google, Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay, along with for looking up word definitions. Firefox also features button links and tabbed pages. You can drag the URL from the URL box to the button link bar to create a button with which to quickly access the site. Use this for frequently accessed sites.

Network File Transfer FTP

The Internet has a great many sites open to public access. They contain files anyone can obtain using file transfer programs. Unless you already know where a file is located, however, finding it can be difficult. To search for files on FTP sites, you can use search engines provided by Web sites, such as Yahoo , Google, or Lycos. For Linux software, you can check sites such as,,,,, and These sites usually search for both Web pages and FTP files.

Vendor Web Sites and Other Resources

Search engines http http http http Of course, it's impossible to create a static list of resources that will fulfill your ever-changing needs. If standard and familiar sources don't offer what you're looking for, don't hesitate to use a search engine. A targeted search on a quality search site can be surprisingly fruitful.

Will the Server Handle Multiple Requests

An interesting implementation of extending a traditional protocol to handle multiple requests is described in RFC 1854 SMTP Service Extension for Command Pipelining. (You can find it on the Web by doing a Google search for RFC+1854 .) In this case, while the server can handle multiple requests from a client, it responds to the requests in order. This eliminates the need for any identifying numbers for the commands responses, but it does require the client to match up the responses with the corresponding command.

Tip To Dash or Not to Dash

Each command on your computer includes a manual pageor man pagethat contains a list of the options available. Man pages are traditionally rather terse and only intended for referencing the different ways the command should be used. For a friendlier introduction to using commands a Google search is recommended.

Changing your home page

First locate the page on the Web that you want to be the home page. You can get to that page any way you want. You can search with a search engine to find the page you want, you can type the URL in the Location text box, or you may even accidentally end up on a page that you want to make your home page. It doesn't matter.

FTP Clients

The Internet has a great many sites open to public access. They contain files anyone can obtain using file transfer programs, such as NcFTP. Unless you already know where a file is located, however, finding it can be difficult. To search for files on FTP sites, you can use search engines provided by Web sites, such as Yahoo , Excite, Alta Vista, Google, or Lycos. For Linux software, you can check sites such as,,

Jwhois Looks Up Information About an Internet Site

The jwhois utility (jwhois package) replaces whois and queries a whois server for information about an Internet site. This utility returns site contact and InterNIC or other registry information that can help you track down the person who is responsible for a site Perhaps that person is sending you or your company spam (page 1061). Many sites on the Internet are easier to use and faster than jwhois. Use a browser and search engine to search on whois or go to whois or perl whois to get started.

IMAP Servers for Linux

Many of the packages dcacribea in the earlier section, POP Serversfor Linux, include IMLAP eslnctionality. Specifically, UW IMAP, Cyrus IMAP, and Courier all support IMAP as well as POP. In 2002, searches on http and Web search engines reveal several other IMAP server projects, but many of them are pery new and have no working aode available, or they fill rather esoteric niches, like a proxy server to allow Web browsing via IMAP.

Getting Support for SUSE

The SUSE Linux Portal (http is the place to search for answers about using SUSE. To try the free search engine at the site, just select Search. You don't need a user account to search articles related to SUSE Linux, although you do need one to search articles related to Linux business products from SUSE. To get an account, select the Sign Up Here link from the SUSE Linux Portal page. If you have purchased your SUSE distribution, you can use that account to register your SUSE product. Having a registered SUSE product lets you use your account to get free installation information and other support services.

Working with the Search

Another useful feature that Firefox offers is the search bar in the upper-right corner of the program window. By using this search bar, you can search for items on the Internet. By default, the Google search engine is used for that purpose but you can use the drop-down list next to the Google icon to select other web sites and search engines as well. These include pure search engines, such as Yahoo, as well as popular web sites such as Wikipedia and Figure 4-11 shows the sites that appear by default in the drop-down list.

Other Programming Languages

There are, of course, many more programming languages supported in Linux. Whether you are looking for programming in Forth, Lisp, or FORTRAN, a short search on the Net with your favorite search engine should yield rapid results. A good starting point is the Other Languages section in Chapter 13 of Running Linux (O'Reilly).

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

The Linux Documentation Project at http offers many in-depth resources for configuring and troubleshooting these connections. The Internet search engine Google is also an invaluable tool for dealing with specific questions about these connections. For many other useful references, see the Reference section at the end of this chapter.

The Repository Rundown

If you have enabled these extra repositories and your package is still not there, have a quick hunt around with a search engine to see if you can find a repository (known as a Debian or APT repository) for your package. If you find one, use the Repositories dialog box you have just played with to add the new repository, and then use Synaptic to install the package.

Getting Support for SUSE and openSUSE

The Wiki (http is the place to search for answers about openSUSE. To try the free search engine at the site, just enter your term in the Search box. Check the news and events box for the latest news about openSUSE. For a more interactive experience, select the Communicate link to gain access to mailing lists, online forums, IRC chats, and other tools for connecting you to the openSUSE community You can also follow links to PlanetSUSE (http, where you can read blogs from members of the openSUSE community If you are really stuck, try the openSUSE Support Database (http SDB SDB).

Configuring a DialUp Connection Manually

Many software modems will not work with Linux because the manufacturers will not release programming information about them or provide Linux drivers. An external serial port modem or ISA bus modem will almost always work USB and PCI modems are still problematic. It is suggested that you do a thorough Google search using your modem's name and model number to see how others have solved problems with that particular modem. Links to software modem compatibility sites appear at the end of this chapter.

Controlling Web Robots

Your Web site isn't always accessed by human users. Many search engines index your Web site by using Web robots programs that traverse Web sites for indexing purposes. These robots often index information they shouldn't and sometimes don't index what they should. The following section examines ways to control (most) robot access to your Web site. Frequently used search engines such as Yahoo , AltaVista, Excite, and Infoseek use automated robot or spider programs that search Web sites and index their contents. This is usually desirable, but on occasion, you may find yourself wanting to stop these robots from accessing a certain part of your Web site. If content in a section of your Web site frequently expires (daily, for example), you don't want the search robots to index it. When a user at the search-engine site clicks a link to the old content and finds that the link doesn't exist, she isn't happy. That user may then go to the next link without returning to your site. This protocol...

My Remote Control Doesnt Work

The first step is to determine which LIRC driver is required for your particular remote control. Take a look at the list of remotes on the LIRC site at or use your favorite search engine if it is not listed on the site. LIRC includes a number of built-in drivers, and you can see which ones are included by running the following command

Enhanced Web Browsing Internet Keywords

Searching the web using Konqueror is very practical. Konqueror defines a number of search engines for you, all with a specific shortcut. To search for a certain topic on the Internet, enter the shortcut and the keyword separated by a colon. The relevant page containing the search results is then displayed.

Optimized for the

Galeon is primarily designed to make surfing the Internet as convenient as possible. In the default configuration, Galeon presents a second toolbar, enabling quick access to the popular Google search engine and its news and image search function. It can also offer access to an online dictionary and use the bookmarklets. This is made possible by small JavaScript functions built into Galeon, for example, find out how current a page is or allow the Internet site to slowly scroll down the screen.

The Navigation Toolbar

The next element to the right is the location bar in which to enter Internet addresses (URLs) or search terms. If you enter a search term then press 'Search', Mozilla searches the web for that term using the search engine set in the preferences. After having visited a number of sites, directly select their addresses again by clicking the down arrow, which opens a dropdown list. Mozilla stores the contents of this list so it is available in your next browser session. Start typing a previous address then hit (Jab) to complete it automatically.

Organization Enumeration

Apart from gathering this information via Internet search engines, corporate information websites such as http, http, and http provide the public with detailed company information such as business summaries, financial blogs, analyst estimates and stock market statistics, insider information, executives' names and pay details, news headlines, and reports. Websites such as http allow attackers to search for internal memos, leaked emails, and rumors about specific organizations, providing them with a clear insight into the business side of the organization, which may lead to social engineering attacks being performed with much greater precision.

Searching the World Wide

Searches are a big part of web browsing, and people have different search preferences. Search engines such as Lycos, Yahoo, and Google are popular sites you can visit to conduct a search. To save time, Konqueror offers two shortcuts for web searching internet keywords and web shortcuts. Because they can help make your search more economical, let's talk a bit about each. Internet keywords are words or phrases typed into the Location bar that redirect your browser to a related site. Companies often pay for internet keywords to drive traffic to their sites with these redirects. For example, you could simply type CNN in an empty Location bar and be taken directly to http If Konqueror fails to match an internet keyword, however, it will automatically use the search engine you have designated in the Configure Konqueror menu as the default (to be explained shortly). A web shortcut is a form of shorthand for requesting a web search of a specific topic on a specific search engine...

Troubleshooting Your Cluster Environment

If you can spare a few bucks, it is also interesting to get a subscription to Novell's support knowledgebase on DVD. With a monthly update you get access to an integrated search engine on your own computer that will search through the TIDs, product documentation, application notes, and cool solutions.

Configuring a DNS Server

We have talked about a few backbone services of the Internet in this book, but one of the most important is the role of the nameserver. Imagine life without names going to your favorite search engine ( would involve having to type in http Not so bad, but if you have ten favorite sites, you would have to remember all of those addresses. As TCP IP needs to use IP addresses to make a connection to another machine, DNS is important to bridge the gap between the human and the computer. The role of the Domain Name System (DNS) is not just to translate names to IP addresses, but also to form the basis for mail server lookups and reverse name lookups (IP addresses to names).

Bootloader Problems and Kernel Oops

In these situations, Google is your friend. Chances are quite good that someone else has seen the error message(s) you have, and there are likely documented solutions out there. Head to your favorite search engine and type in the error message with quotes around it. Be aware that Google has a 10-word limit on search terms, so you may need to focus on the keywords in the error message.

Understanding FTP Servers

Originally, one drawback with FTP servers was that when people looked for a file or a document on the Internet, they had to know which FTP server held the file they were looking for. Tools such as Gopher and WAIS helped in searches. With the advent of the Web, however, users can now rely on a variety of search engines and links from Web pages to help identify FTP servers that have the files they want. In fact, when you download files by clicking a link from a Web page, you may not even be aware that the

Serving Dynamic Content with CGI Scripts

No doubt you've encountered web pages that are composed of dynamic content. The hallmark of such a site is that its content varies from one user to another. For instance, the shopping cart page on a web merchant's site is dynamic content. Web search engines rely on dynamic content after all, your search may be entirely unique. Given the popularity of both Apache and dynamic content, it shouldn't be surprising that Apache supports delivering dynamic content. Doing so requires telling Apache how to deliver dynamic content, as well as creating that content. Unfortunately, dynamic content is one of the riskier web server configurations, so you must be aware of the dangers it poses.

Types of Dynamic Content

Another dynamic content element is important web forms. These are web pages that include text-entry fields, buttons, selection lists, and so on. Most dynamic content relies on web forms to enable users to enter information to be delivered to the web server for use in generating dynamic content. For instance, a web search engine includes, at a minimum, a text entry field and a button to initiate a search. Like other web pages, web forms are created using HTML. Effective use of GCI scripts requires some knowledge of web forms.

A21 Web Sites Devoted to GNULinux A211 MUO

And, of course, remember about your favorite search engines. Generally speaking, it is the most practical information seeking tool. A few carefully chosen keywords in a search engine will often produce the needed answers to your specific problem. In Google, you can even make a GNU Linux-oriented search by typing http linux (http linux ).

Where to Go from Here

Furthermore, you should be able to perform web searches to find additional information. The Internet is by far the best source for specific information on ever-changing environments and commands. For example, you can find an early paper by Steven Bourne, creator of the Bourne shell, at era unix shell.html, or the Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide at LDP abs html .

Writing Java Servlets

A Web search engine such as Google ( ) is a good example of an interactive Web page the user enters one or more keywords, and the Google search engine returns an HTML document containing links to other Web pages that contain the search words. The HTML document returned by the search engine is dynamic because the contents of that page depend on what search words the user types it's not a predefined, static document.

Making Fedora Distribution CDs

Sure you can download RPM packages off the Web whenever you need them, but it's a whole lot easier (and quicker) to have your own set of distribution CDs, handy and ready for use. You no longer have to search Web sites for the packages (hundreds of them exist) that are included with your distribution just pop in the CD and unpack.

Runtime Errors Boot Loader Problems and Kernel Oops

Excellent documentation on the Internet exists for troubleshooting just about every type of error that LILO, GRUB, or the kernel could give during boot. The best way to find this documentation is to go to your favorite search engine and type in the keywords of the error you received. You will need to adjust the keywords you use as you focus your search.

Google Is Your Friend

Some of the fastest and most comprehensive search engines on the Web are powered by Linux, so it makes sense to use the best available resources. Out of the myriad number of websites with search engines, http stands out from the crowd, with millions of users per month. The site uses advanced hardware and software to bring speed and efficiency to your searches. If you are looking for specific Linux answers, take advantage of Google's Linux page at http linux. Why is Google (named after a math number) so powerful You can get a quick overview from the Google folks at http technology . Part of its success is because of great algorithms, good programming, and simple interface design but most users really seem to appreciate Google's uncanny capability to provide links to what you are looking for in the first page of a search return. Google's early success was also assured because the site ran its search engine on clusters of thousands of PCs running a...

Major OnLine Resources

A good place to look for RFCs is the Kashpureff Family's site, at http nic , which has a copy of all RFCs and drafts, as well as a search engine to search for keywords through either RFCs or drafts. Cabletron has a repository of RFCs and drafts. Drafts are indexed by subject, while STDs & RFCs by title & number. A search engine is supplied to search through titles or bodies.

Newsgroups Where People Talk About christianity

The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located at Trondheim, has an FTP search engine on the web, located at http ftpsearch, that can find files on anonymous FTP servers world wide. Other files search engine are located at http and which can find files for specific platforms (e.g. unix, windows, mac) or specific formats (e.g. wav, midi, fonts, source code).

News Proxy and Search Servers

Dig, known officially as ht Dig, is a Web indexing and search system designed for small networks or intranets. Dig is not considered a replacement for full-scale Internet search systems, such as Lycos, Infoseek, or Alta Vista. Unlike Web server-based search engines, Dig can span several Web servers at a site. Dig was developed at San Diego State University and is distributed free under the GNU Public License. You can obtain information and documentation at, and you can download software packages-including RPM packages-from

Web Services Enumeration and Manipulation

The simplest way of finding this file for an organization, if you are lucky, is by using the advanced options in a search engine. In Google you can use either of the following search terms. An example is shown in Figure 13-7. This requires that the organization has either made the WSDL file available for a public web service or accidentally leaked the file onto the Internet due to weak ACLs, where search engines and attackers can find it. You could also find this file by crawling an organization's web application to determine whether a link exists to the WSDL file, as well as by brute-forcing common WSDL-related filenames and directories, or by appending the 7wsdl parameter to the end of each web application program. Figure 13-8 Example WSDL file for a Name Search web service Figure 13-9 post data for a request to the Name Search web service

Using the Strigi Desktop Search Application

Just as search engines make it possible to find information on specific topics regardless of where it is located on the Internet, desktop search applications such as Mac OS X's Spotlight, Microsoft Windows' Desktop Search, or Google's Desktop Search make it easy to find information that is located somewhere on your desktop computer. Online search engines and desktop search applications actually work in a very similar way they crawl the information that they are responsible for and create an index of that information against which you can submit queries.

Searching files with grep

When using or administering a system, you often need to look for lines in a file that contain a certain string. In the first example that follows, you simply find the lines in the file that contain the string bible. The examples with tail are examples of piping the output from one command to another a very powerful concept that was also introduced in the section Advanced shell features, earlier in this chapter. In the first case, you get the output from the tail command, and you just select the lines that contain 404. In the second, you select the lines that do not include the string googlebot the -v option indicates not. In the last example, the A symbol represents the start of a line, so you see only the lines that do not start with the symbol . (The character identifies lines that are comments in shell scripts and most Linux configuration files. This example therefore displays the lines of the configuration file that are actually active.) tail Looks in the last 100 lines of the web...

Simple Key management for Internet ProtocolsSKIP

A good search engine could supply further info. Some other good search engines are AltaVista at http Hotbot at http The Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library site is an archive of computer science articles, which can be searched through using an impressive search engine. http

S3 Make Ubuntu safe for children to use

On the other hand, if there's a site that Dansguardian lets through that perhaps it shouldn't, then you can add it in exactly the same way to the file etc dansguardian bannedurllist. You might choose to add various search engines to this list if you wish to stop children being able to seek-out objectionable material. For example, to stop Google being used, you could add to the list. Bear in mind that you'll also need to

Building a Standalone Package

To do is to use a search engine such as Clusty or Google to try to locate someone who has already built the application that you're looking for and offers it as a DEB package that you can install on your Linux system. Some trust issues are involved in this scenario you have to hope that the person who built the package did it correctly, and also that they didn't hack the software in some evil way. The former is usually the case, and the latter has never happened to me, but you never know. So, it's far safer to simply build and install the package yourself. As they say in my favorite computer-related movie, the key to building software is to Use the source, Luke . Your favorite search engine should make it easy to locate the search with a query like package-name source download. In my case, the Clusty search engine identified that I could find the source code for XMMS at, from the URL I would normally retrieve this using a browser, but for the purposes of this example, you...

Using the Tracker Desktop Search Application

Just as search engines make it possible to find information on specific topics regardless of where the information is located on the Internet, desktop search applications make it easy to find information that is located somewhere on your desktop computer. Online search engines and desktop search applications actually work in a very similar way they crawl the information that they are responsible for and create an index of that information against which you can submit queries.

Using the Konqueror Browser

One of my favorite Konqueror features of all time is its support for Web shortcuts. These are special strings that enable you to go directly to a portion of a site without explicitly typing an entire address. For example, to search for something using the Google search engine, you can simply type gg followed by what you want to search for in the location bar to go directly to the search results for those terms. Some other great shortcuts are vi word(s) Does a search for the specified word(s) using Vivisimo's Clusty search engine and Web site at http

Flex Builder For Linux Kernel

After installation, the IDE is accessible via Tools Selenium IDE in the Firefox menu. To illustrate the IDE functionality, let's re-create the above Google search test case using the IDE. In order to do this, you simply should run the IDE, check that the record button is on, open the http page, type selenium and click Google Search. As you type, the Selenium IDE captures what you do (Figure 3).

Reading Documentation with Konqueror

But Konqueror doesn't stop here when it comes to getting information. Want to use a search engine on the Internet To find pages about Tux (the Linux mascot) on, let's say, the AltaVista search engine, simply type the following in a mini command-line or the Konqueror URL entry line and a Konqueror window with (at the time of this writing) 1,319,135 search results pops up. This works with many other search engines as well. See Table 11-1 for some of the most popular search engines together with their prefixes. Table 11-1. Popular search engines and their prefixes Search Engine AltaVista If your favorite search engine is not configured (which is quite unlikely, actually), you can configure it yourself by opening a Konqueror window and selecting Settings, Configure Konqueror, and then Enhanced Browsing. The Enable Web Shortcuts section on that configuration page contains all the preconfigured search engines and even lets you add your own.

Customizing Konqueror

Konqueror offers many ways to customize its appearance and functionality, based on individual preferences and needs. A single area within Konqueror has been designed for managing most aspects of its operation, the KDE Control Module. You can access it from the Settings menu by choosing a submenu titled Configure Konqueror. Selecting this option actually launches the Settings module. Apart from allowing you to adjust your home page, search engine, and plugins, as you have already learned, this module also lets you adjust the way that your browser displays links and fonts, interacts with Java, and manages cookies from the sites you visit.

Using the Kthememanager Application to Install Themes

The previous section explained how to use the System Settings application's Appearance screens to customize the appearance of the theme that is currently being used on your Kubuntu system. However, many complete alternative themes are available on the Net that enable you to completely replace the theme that is currently being used on your system. My favorites KDE theme sites are ( ), the KDE section of ( kde.php), and Freshmeat's KDE themes section (http themes.freshmeat .net browse 57 ). A quick Web search for KDE themes with your favorite search engine will turn up many more sites. Themes for different KDE versions are very different make sure that you select the version that is designed for use with the version of KDE that is present on your system. The 3.x themes should work fine on a default Kubuntu system.

Personnel Enumeration

Some Internet search engines provide a People Search option, such as http www, where you can almost instantly create profiles of people based on information found on the Internet. This, however, is not the biggest threat. Personal networking websites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Orkut, and MySpace, allow individuals to develop their professional and social networks. These sites also provide an attacker with the ability to search for and enumerate an enormous amount of information about individuals. Facebook (http is a prime example of a social networking website where an attacker is able to search for people based on name, sex, town, state, country, zip code, relationship status, whether they are looking for a relationship, political and religious views, interests, activities, music, movies, TV shows, books, education, land phone and mobile phone, email address, company name, or position.

Configuring a Gnome Online Desktop

Small icons beneath your user name represent the configured online services. A search box lets you select from a half dozen different search engines. Popular applications and files you have opened recently appear on the sidebar. You can also see your Google calendar and the people you have invited to be your friends.

Freeware or Everything Else

The last bit of free software that I want to cover doesn't really fall under the open source or cloud computing umbrella. This software, which is typically labeled freeware, can be found all over the Internet by doing a Google search for freeware. But beware you'll get millions of search returns for that label, and most of them aren't worth a click of your mouse to investigate. Not all freeware is malicious, but you have to be careful out there when it comes to downloading and installing software on your computer. When it comes to locating freeware, it helps to know a bit more about exactly what you're looking for, and that can often be just as easy as it is difficult. In these instances, I always recommend that you use some of the more trustworthy sites on the Internet that collect, scan, and review freeware. Sites such as http allow you to search for freeware based on category. It still makes sense to investigate any piece of freeware you download (including scanning for...

NDIS Wrapper Tips and Tricks

For me, one of the most frustrating sets of experiences has been with a variety of LinkSys WPC54G wireless PCMCIA cards, all of which I've gotten working, but only after significant driver gymnastics, head scratching, Google searches, and commiseration with fellow Linux devotees. (I was originally planning to title this section The LinkSys WPC54G, or How I Spent My Summer Vacation, but I am trying to generalize what I've learned rather than simply provide a single set of instructions.) By the way, these are great cards that support 802.11g (and therefore 802.11b), and because I typically find LinkSys hardware to be inexpensive and reliable, I often recommend them to friends. Unfortunately, a HUGE problem with these cards is that LinkSys has used a variety of wireless chips in them over the years, so they often use different drivers, each of which seems to require its own tweaks to get it to work with the ndiswrapper module.

The Linux Source Tree

Kernei-parameters.txt This file is a list of most of the arguments that you can pass at boot time to configure kernel or hardware settings, but it does not appear too useful at first glance because it is just a list. However, knowing that a parameter exists and might relate to something you are looking for can assist you in tracking down more information because now you have terms to enter into an Internet search engine such as http linux.


Community support is also provided by dedicated individuals, and companies, that wish to make Ubuntu the best distribution possible. Support is provided through multiple mailing lists, IRC channels, forums, blogs, wikis, etc. The large amount of information available can be overwhelming, but a good search engine query can usually provide an answer to your questions. See the Ubuntu Support page for more information.

Web Pages

Table 1.5 lists the URLs of some popular Linux web pages. Check these out to get the latest information about Linux. Perhaps the most useful is the home page of the Linux Documentation Project. There, you can find almost anything you want to know about Linux. The Linux Documentation Project web site includes a search engine that makes it easy to find what you need.

Linus and Linux

On the server side, Linux is well-known as a stable and reliable platform, providing database and trading services for companies like Amazon, the well-known online bookshop, US Post Office, the German army and such. Especially Internet providers and Internet service providers have grown fond of Linux as firewall, proxy- and web server, and you will find a Linux box within reach of every UNIX system administrator who appreciates a comfortable management station. Clusters of Linux machines are used in the creation of movies such as Titanic , Shrek and others. In post offices, they are the nerve centers that route mail and in large search engine, clusters are used to perform internet searches.These are only a few of the thousands of heavy-duty jobs that Linux is performing day-to-day across the world.

Shawn Powers

Reuven Lerner gives us all a lesson in jQuery. It's growing in popularity, and Reuven shows us some reasons why. It certainly doesn't mean you have to switch if you're already using something like Prototype, but it's definitely something you'll want to read about. Although, perhaps something like the Google Web Toolkit is more appealing. There's no doubt Google knows its stuff when it comes to Web development, and using the GWT, you can harness much of Google's power from within your Java programs. Federico Kereki walks us through developing Web 2.0 applications using Google's Web toolkit, again emphasizing the idea of the Web as a platform rather than just a device

Wired Connections

You should also bear in mind that if you do not have a network card (either wired or wireless) or it is not correctly installed, then Ubuntu will not show any option at all, as only the cards it finds connected are provided as options. Therefore, if you do have a wired network card but none is listed, then you may need to use a search engine to find a suitable driver and install it. For example, I discovered from a Google search that one of my computers experiencing networking problems uses the RALink 2790 chipset which is not installed by default. After performing another quick search, I located the RT2860STA driver software, which I downloaded and installed according to the supplied instructions. After a reboot, the menu was properly activated. Due to the wide variety of network cards, it's not practical to list them and their drivers here. However, you can usually determine what hardware is connected by opening up the Terminal (by selecting Applications Accessories Terminal),...


Google (http ) is one of the most useful websites when it comes to finding technical information, or information on just about any topic for that matter. Its search engine uses a page ranking system to order results with the most popular and generally more relevant results first. You will often find that simply searching for an error message on Google will lead to a site or discussion which solves the issue.

Information You Need

Table 2-1 specifies the configuration information you need and gives you space to conveniently record the information as you gather it. If your system currently runs Windows, you can obtain much of the needed information by using Windows utilities, as explained in the next section. To obtain the remaining information, you can consult your system documentation and the documentation for any devices installed by you. If your documentation is missing or incomplete, you may need to contact your hardware vendor or manufacturer. Alternatively, you may be able to find the needed information on the manufacturer's web site use a search engine such as Google (which is powered by Linux) to discover the URL of the web site.


To search for files, select the Find entry in the Tools menu. This opens a pane within the file manager window in which you can search for filenames using wildcard matching symbols, such as *. Click Find to run the search and Stop to stop it. The search results are displayed in a pane in the lower half of the file manager window. You can click a file and have it open with its appropriate application. Text files are displayed by the Kate text editor. Images are displayed by KView, and PostScript files by KGhostView. Applications are run. The search program also enables you to save your search results for later reference. You can even select files from the search and add them to an archive.

Checking Filesystems

When fsck does exist on a Linux version, it is often just a front-end search engine that looks in the bin, sbin, etc fs, and etc directories for one of the proper filesystem fsck versions, and then executes that version. The search and execution processes are transparent to you in most cases.


PHP-Nuke is a powerful set of prewritten PHP scripts aimed at creating portal sites. It combines originally produced content with syndicated information from partner sites, and lets users customise what they want to see. This way, visitors are attracted to your site because it gives them content they're interested in. As well as news displays, Nuke provides comments and moderation, surveys, access statistics and referrer tracking, user registration, page theming, banner advertising management, a search engine, Web directories, headline generation in Netscape RDF format, content syndication, moderated

Web shortcuts

Konqueror includes several built-in shortcuts for accessing particular search engines and other sites. You can define these in the Konqueror Settings dialog under Configure Konqueror O Web Shortcuts. So for example, you can directly get a Google query for the word SUSE by typing gg SUSE in the location bar. You can search CPAN for Perl modules containing the word text with cpan text and so on. (Using gg for Google can certainly become a habit that leads to irritation when for some reason you happen to be using another browser that doesn't support these web shortcuts.)

Common Sense Security

Installing new software Be careful in choosing programs to download and install. Because Linux works on the basis of open-source code, theoretically, anyone can tamper with a program and then offer it for download by the unwary. This very rarely happens in real life. Even so, it's wise to avoid downloading programs from unofficial sources, such as web sites you find online via a search engine and whose authenticity you cannot totally trust. Instead, get software from the web site of the people who made it in the first place or, ideally, from the official Ubuntu software repositories (discussed in Chapter 28).

Reuven Mlerner

This might sound like a strange idea, but the more I think about it, the more I like it. RJS (short for Ruby JavaScript) templates are one incarnation of this. If you prefer to create your JavaScript in Java, you might want to look at the Google Web Toolkit, which is now available under an open-source license and has gained many fans in the Java world.


By default, Firefox will search the web using the Google search engine. Selecting search engines Figure 3.9 These are the other search engines you can use from the search Firefox bar. If you do not want to use Google as your search engine in the Search Bar, you can change the search engine that Firefox uses. To change the search engine, click on the icon on the left side of the Search Bar. Choose one of the other search engines in the list. Some search engines, like Google, search the whole web others, like, only search specific sites. 2. Right-click on the text you've highlighted to open a popup menu. Choose the option Search Search Engine for your selected words .

Web Browsers

To search for files on FTP sites, you can use search engines provided by Web sites, such as Yahoo , Google, or Lycos. These usually search for both Web pages and FTP files. To find a particular Web page you want on the Internet, you can use any of these search engines or perform searches from any number of Web portals. Web searches have become a standard service of most Web sites. Searches carried out on documents within a Web site may use local search indexes set up and maintained by indexing programs like ht Dig. Sites using ht Dig use a standard Web page search interface. Hypertext databases are designed to access any kind of data, whether it is text, graphics, sound, or even video. Whether you can actually access such data depends to a large extent on the type of browser you use.

Apache Tricks

This chapter discusses three of those modules. Mod_rewrite enables you to provide URL substitutions to accommodate site changes, but if you use it properly, you can use it to secure your site and make it friendlier to search engines. Mod_speling helps correct inadvertent spelling mistakes made by visitors to your site. Mod_deflate will enable you to compress your content as you send it to users, saving you money on bandwidth. Mod_auth_mysql lets you beef up your site security by harnessing the power of a user database with Apache's authentication. Mod_ssl allows you to encrypt the data flowing to and from your web server. Finally, mod_dav allows you to use your Apache web server as a distributed file repository.

Doc Searls

The original death threats were issued by an anonymous coward in the lively comments section of the blog by a veteran game developer, book author and speaker at tech conferences. I'll call her Barbara. (I am not naming names other than my own, because this column will find its way to the Web, and I don't want search engines to associate any of those names with the controversy that followed or further smudge any party's already-muddied reputation.) The original comments didn't bother Barbara too much, but she found her fears moving over an edge when a number of especially nasty posts appeared at blogs authored and or owned by a group that includes prominent bloggers , she said. For more than a week following Barbara's original post, her name was the top search term on Technorati. To put this in context, consider the fact that Technorati the blogosphere's main search engine began as a hack by David Sifry in the fall of 2002 to help the two of us write a feature on blogging that ran in...

Web Browser Firefox

Searching is very easy within Firefox, using its search bar at the top right of the window. By default, Firefox uses Google for searches. To choose from other search engines, click the small down arrow on the left side of the search box. You can even enter your own choice of site if your favorite isn't already in the list click Manage Search Engines, and then click the Get More Search Engines link in the dialog box that appears.

Dave Taylor

The search engine itself is at the URL shown in the first line of the listing above. The rest of the lines are parameters sent to the search engine. You can see that the search term is p ( p strangelove ). You can infer the other parameters by looking at the form yr release decade, gen genre, syn synopsis keywords and so on.

General Features

Besides easy configuration, KDE sports a few other features that were previously unheard of on Linux. For example, it integrates Internet access fully into the desktop. It comes with a file manager that doubles as a web browser (or the other way around), and browsing files on some FTP sites is just the same as browsing your local hard disk. You can drag and drop icons that represent Internet locations to your desktop and thus easily find them again later. KDE integrates search engines and other Internet resources into your desktop and even lets you define your own favorite search engines and Internet links with ease. In addition, almost all KDE application are able to open and save files in remote locations.

The Menu

Tools A number of useful browser functions can be accessed via the 'Tools' menu. For example, access a search engine to find certain contents on the Internet. The Cookie Manager gives control over the cookies the browser has stored on your computer and lists each cookie together with the address of the site from which it originated. Use it to reverse previous decisions on whether to accept or reject cookies. The Image Manager allows you to block images and advertising banners from web sites, which improves speed. The Password Manager can make things easier for you if you frequently log in to sites via web interfaces (both in internal networks and on the Internet). Mozilla can remember the passwords for you. However, this fea

Mandriva Forums

Another critical resource for information on all things Linux is your local Linux user group (LUG). Each LUG is different, but you are apt to find a number of like-minded users with whom to interact in a variety of situations. If you have no idea how to find the nearest LUG, you can try using your favorite search engine to look for the words Linux Users Group, along with the name of the nearest big town or city.

System Enumeration

It amazes many people as to how much of this type of information is available on the Internet, and all you need to know is where to look and how to use an Internet search engine. Network registration information can be found via a number of public WHOIS databases, such as RIPE, ARIN, and APNIC, and can be accessed either via a web browser or via the WHOIS Linux utility. These databases allow users to determine what IP addresses your organization has been allocated, contact information revealing names, email addresses, phone numbers, physical addresses for the organization, and sometimes even the corporate DNS servers.

Welcome to Firefox

Firefox opens to the Ubuntu start page with a Google search box. Figure 9-2. Firefox opens to the Ubuntu start page with a Google search box. Finally, Firefox offers a Search box at the far right of the toolbar type in your text to search and click the small magnifying glass button, and your search results will be displayed in the browser window below the toolbar.

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