Differences Between IPFW and Netfilter Firewall Mechanisms

Because iptables is so different from the previous ipchains, this book won't attempt to cover the older implementation.

The next section is written for the reader who is familiar with or is currently using ipchains. If iptables is your first introduction to Linux firewalling, you can skip ahead to the section "Netfilter Packet Traversal."

If you are converting from ipchains, you'll notice several minor differences in the iptables syntax, most notably that the input and output network interfaces are identified separately. iptables is highly modularized, and the individual modules must occasionally be loaded explicitly. Logging is a rule target rather than a command option. Connection state tracking can be maintained. Address and Port Translation are now logically separate functions from packet filtering. Full Source and Destination Address Translation are implemented. Masquerading is now a term used to refer to a specialized form of source address NAT. Port forwarding and Destination Address Translation are supported directly without the need for third-party software support such as ipmasqadm.

MASQUERADING IN EARLIER VERSIONS OF LINUX

For those of you who are new to Linux, Network Address Translation (NAT) is fully implemented in iptables. Before this, NAT was called masquerading in Linux. A simple, partial implementation of Source Address Translation, masquerading was used by site owners who had a single public IP address and who wanted other hosts on their private network to be capable of accessing the Internet. Outgoing packets from these internal hosts had their source address masqueraded to that of the public, routable IP address.

The most important difference is in how packets are routed or forwarded through the operating system, making for subtle differences in how the firewall rule set is constructed.

For ipchains users, understanding the differences in packet traversal that are discussed in the next two sections is very important. iptables and ipchains look very much alike on the surface, but they are very different in practice. It's very easy to write syntactically correct iptables rules that have a different effect from what a similar rule would have done in ipchains. It can be confusing. If you already know ipchains, you must keep the differences in mind.

IPFW Packet Traversal

Under IPFW (ipfwadm and ipchains), three built-in filter chains were used. All packets arriving on an interface were filtered against the input chain. If the packet was accepted, it was passed to the routing module. The routing function determined whether the packet was to be delivered locally or forwarded to another outgoing interface. IPFW packet flow is pictured in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1. IPFW packet traversal. (Figure based on "Linux IPCHAINS-HOWTO," by

Figure 3.1. IPFW packet traversal. (Figure based on "Linux IPCHAINS-HOWTO," by

Packet Flow Netfilter And

If forwarded, the packet was filtered a second time against the forward chain. If the packet was accepted, it was passed to the output chain.

Both locally generated outgoing packets and forwarded packets were passed to the output chain. If the packet was

Received and sent local (loopback) packets passed through two filters. Forwarded packets passed through three filters.

The loopback path involved two chains. As shown in Figure 3.2, each loopback packet passed through the output filter before going "out" the loopback interface, where it was then delivered to the loopback's input interface. Then the input filter was applied.

Figure 3.2. IPFW loopback and masqueraded packet traversal. (Figure based on "Linux

IPCHAINS-HOWTO," by Rusty Russel, v1.0.8.)

Figure 3.2. IPFW loopback and masqueraded packet traversal. (Figure based on "Linux

IPCHAINS-HOWTO," by Rusty Russel, v1.0.8.)

Firewakk Mechnism

Note that the loopback path demonstrates why people's X Window session hangs when starting a firewall script that either doesn't allow loopback traffic or fails before doing so when a deny by default policy is used.

In the case of response packets being demasqueraded before forwarding them on to the LAN, the input filters were applied. Rather than passing through the routing function, the packet was handed directly to the output filter chain. Thus, demasqueraded incoming packets were filtered twice. Outgoing masqueraded packets were filtered three times.

Continue reading here: Netfilter Packet Traversal

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