As stated before, most Unix kernels are monolithic: each kernel layer is integrated into the whole kernel program and runs in Kernel Mode on behalf of the current process. In contrast, microkernel operating systems demand a very small set of functions from the kernel, generally including a few synchronization primitives, a simple scheduler, and an interprocess communication mechanism. Several system processes that run on top of the microkernel implement other operating system-layer functions, like memory allocators, device drivers, and system call handlers.
Although academic research on operating systems is oriented toward microkernels, such operating systems are generally slower than monolithic ones, since the explicit message passing between the different layers of the operating system has a cost. However, microkernel operating systems might have some theoretical advantages over monolithic ones. Microkernels force the system programmers to adopt a modularized approach, since each operating system layer is a relatively independent program that must interact with the other layers through well-defined and clean software interfaces. Moreover, an existing microkernel operating system can be easily ported to other architectures fairly easily, since all hardware-dependent components are generally encapsulated in the microkernel code. Finally, microkernel operating systems tend to make better use of random access memory (RAM) than monolithic ones, since system processes that aren't implementing needed functionalities might be swapped out or destroyed.
To achieve many of the theoretical advantages of microkernels without introducing performance penalties, the Linux kernel offers modules. A module is an object file whose code can be linked to (and unlinked from) the kernel at runtime. The object code usually consists of a set of functions that implements a filesystem, a device driver, or other features at the kernel's upper layer. The module, unlike the external layers of microkernel operating systems, does not run as a specific process. Instead, it is executed in Kernel Mode on behalf of the current process, like any other statically linked kernel function.
The main advantages of using modules include:
Since any module can be linked and unlinked at runtime, system programmers must introduce well-defined software interfaces to access the data structures handled by modules. This makes it easy to develop new modules.
Even if it may rely on some specific hardware features, a module doesn't depend on a fixed hardware platform. For example, a disk driver module that relies on the SCSI standard works as well on an IBM-compatible PC as it does on Hewlett-Packard's Alpha.
A module can be linked to the running kernel when its functionality is required and unlinked when it is no longer useful. This mechanism also can be made transparent to the user, since linking and unlinking can be performed automatically by the kernel.
Once linked in, the object code of a module is equivalent to the object code of the statically linked kernel. Therefore, no explicit message passing is required when the functions of the module are invoked. m
[7! A small performance penalty occurs when the module is linked and unlinked. However, this penalty can be compared to the penalty caused by the creation and deletion of system processes in microkernel operating systems.
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