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Loving Editing with Photoshop

This tool is created by Patrick Lavigne, a professional graphic artist that has been into editing, color editing and photography. The main goal for this artist is to create tools that can help people deal with certain conditions at home and with ease. His work is a photoshop tutorial with a variety of photo editing techniques tips and tricks that you can replicate with your own photos, regardless of whether you are an expert or a beginner in photography. Upon subscribing, users will get access to different categories of tutorials as explained above. Each of the categories has a video with all the details about achieving each of the stated photoshop goal. This product is for all Photoshop lovers. It works perfectly fine for Graphic designers, web designers, Photographers or photoshop enthusiasts. It doesn't matter whether you are using your smartphone, Tablet, camera or any other photography device to capture the moments; this product helps you edit your photos like a pro. Read more here...

Loving Editing with Photoshop Summary

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My Loving Editing with Photoshop Review

Highly Recommended

It is pricier than all the other books out there, but it is produced by a true expert and is full of proven practical tips.

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What Does Photoshop Have That Isnt in The GIMP

Although The GIMP is powerful, it does lack two features Adobe Photoshop offers that are important to some graphics professionals. The first of these is the capability to generate color separations for commercial press printers (CMYK for the colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and key or black ). The GIMP uses RGB (red, green, and blue), which is great for video display, but not so great for printing presses. The second feature The GIMP lacks is the use of Pantone colors (a patented color specification) to ensure accurate color matching. If these features are unimportant to you, The GIMP is an excellent tool. If you must use Adobe Photoshop, the current version of CodeWeavers' CrossOver Office will run Photoshop in Linux.

Photo Editing The GIMP

While many of the other programs introduced so far mirror the Windows look and feel in some way, The GIMP walks a different path. It has its own unique way of working, which takes a little getting used to. But it's very much worth the effort, because The GIMP offers photo-editing tools on par with professional products like Adobe Photoshop. It's certainly more than powerful enough for tweaking digital camera snapshots. To open a picture, select File Open and select your image from the hard disk. Once an image file is opened, you can manipulate it using the tools on the toolbar (which are similar to those found in other image editors). On the bottom half of the main program window, you'll find the settings for each tool, which can be altered, usually via click-and-drag sliders.

Photo Management with Picasa

Fortunately for me, I have a secret weapon on my U-PC that lets me fix all these problems, and it's from a company you might have heard of in the news Google. Yes, Google has a free application called Picasa that works great with the Ubuntu operating system. Picasa can fix red-eye, crop photos, solve lighting issues, and much more. Once you start using it, you'll stop fretting over red-eye and other problems with your digital pictures. Picasa is so simple to use that I worry this chapter might actually slow you down it's entirely possible for you to begin using Picasa and learn as you go it's that easy to figure out. But I still want to provide an overview of Picasa as well as some examples of tasks you'll likely perform often on your photos. So let me show you why you don't need to spend 100 or even 25 on any photo-editing software Picasa is here to rescue your digital pictures.

D1 Downloading and Installing the Picasa Package

The easiest way to get Picasa is via Automatix, which you installed and learned to use in Chapter 9. Open Automatix (Applications System Tools Automatix), and once it is up and running, click Office in the left pane. In the right pane of the Automatix window, check the box next to Google Picasa, and then click the Start button at the top of the window. The download and installation process will then begin. Figure 14-16 Picasa Figure 14-16 Picasa

D2 Running and Setting Up Picasa

Once Picasa is installed, you can run it by going to the Applications menu and selecting Graphics Picasa. The first time you do this, you will be greeted by a Picasa License Agreement window. Agree to what you're asked by clicking I Agree. The reason for this warning is that even though you may have yet to add a single image to your computer, your system is already chock-full of them. If you were to accept the default, Picasa would be filled with all sorts of stuff that you really wouldn't want there. It is supposed to be an organizer for your photos, after all. With that in mind, select Only scan the Desktop, and then click the Continue button. Picasa will then scan your desktop for images and add any images it finds to its library. Working with Picasa should be very straightforward, but if you want to find out more, check out http picasa.google.com linux. On that page, you will find a basic overview, links to more Linux-specific information (including FAQ and forum pages), and a...

The GIMP Image Editor

The GIMP image editor, available from the Applications Graphics menu (but see the section What's New in 10.04 on page 390), is an incredibly well-featured and powerful image editor, championed by many people as the Linux equivalent of Adobe Photoshop. It does take a little getting used to, not least because it divides its components up into separate windows on your desktop (see Figure 14-7). Teaching you how to use an image editor as powerful as the GIMP is beyond the scope of this book, so you'll need to browse through the various menus and try out options to acquaint yourself with the program's full capabilities. The GIMP Image Editor j 3S9

Fun with Image Magicks identify

You can use ImageMagick's identify command to identify details about image files. The welcoming splash image used for the GRUB bootloader is located in boot grub and is a gzipped .xpm image. If you run identify on the image, you'll discover that it's a 640x480 xpm image with 16-bit color depth. That's all you need to know to construct a replacement image of your own. Using the GIMP or another graphics tool, crop or resize your chosen image to 640x480 and change the color depth to 16 bits. Save the image as splash.xpm and then gzip the resulting file. Replace the original Red Hat file, and you now have a custom boot image. The use of identify helped you duplicate the parameters of the original image to comply with the requirements of GRUB.

Image Editing Using GIMP

GIMP is an extremely powerful image editor that offers the kind of functions usually associated with top-end software like Adobe Photoshop. Although GIMP is not aimed at beginners, those new to image editing can get a lot from it, provided they put in a little work. Now you need to be aware of a second unusual aspect of the program its reliance on right-clicking. Whereas right-clicking usually brings up a context menu offering a handful of options, within GIMP, it's the principal way of accessing the program's functions. Right-clicking an image brings up a menu offering access to virtually everything you'll need while editing. Ubuntu includes the latest version of GIMP, 2.4, and this features a menu bar in the main image-editing window. This is considered sacrilege by many traditional GIMP users, although it's undoubtedly useful for beginners. However, the right-click menu remains the most efficient way of accessing GIMP's tools. Image-Editing Tools Image-Editing Tools Table 20-1....

Photoshop Versus The GIMP

The first is Photoshop's licensing for Pantone colors to ensure accurate color matching. Adobe can pay to license Pantone's patented color specification the all-volunteer GIMP Project cannot. There are GIMP palettes that approximate Pantone colors, but no one can say with certainty if these educated guesses are 100 right. If you produce images for print, these two issues may be critical, and you may need to keep a copy of Photoshop around. Be aware that you can run Photoshop under Crossover Office, the Codeweavers cross-platform tool. Sometimes you may not be able to work with a file in its current format. Coming to your rescue are a host of separate image-converter applications that can change an image's format almost instantly. The best known of these, ImageMagick, even does its thing from the command line

Using Picasa

As you begin using Picasa, be aware that the application has a great built-in Help feature that can be accessed by clicking the Help menu and choosing the Help Contents and Index option. The Help web site shown in Figure 8-10 opens. Enter your question in the Search bar at the top and click the Search Picasa Help button to find articles and tutorials that might assist you. Figure 8-10. The Picasa Help web site is a great place to look for answers and how-tos. Figure 8-10. The Picasa Help web site is a great place to look for answers and how-tos. Additional help with Picasa can be found by clicking the Help menu and choosing the Picasa Forums option. You can also visit http groups.google.com groups Google-Labs-Picasa-for-Linux and either post your question there or search for existing answers from previous posts.

Summarizing Picasa

I've been able to show you only a handful of Picasa's features, but I hope you got a glimpse of how easy Picasa is to use. You really can't make a mistake with this application all the editing features can be reversed by clicking the Undo button, and the Picasa toolbar offers additional services such as the ability to upload your photos to a blog, e-mail them to friends and family, and even upload them to the Picasa Web Albums service that stores photos online. Remember that Picasa has both an online forum and online Help documentation that you can access to learn about every little feature this application has to offer. Get familiar with all its features, and you'll find that managing and editing your digital photos is no longer a chore.

Image Magick

Another powerful graphics manipulation program is ImageMagick. This program limits you to creating simple graphics as compared with Gimp. However, ImageMagick does enable you to make changes to existing graphics, which is its real power. If all you ever need to do is manipulate images by cropping, resizing, rotating, or other such procedures, then look no further. To install ImageMagick, use dselect to find and select the program named imagemagick for installation. The package installs the suite of programs that make up ImageMagick. Once the program is installed, you can launch it through the window manager's application menu by looking under Viewers. Officially, the Debian install of ImageMagick considers itself a viewer instead of belonging to the graphics category and is found in the Debian menu tree. Navigating ImageMagick's main menu is simple, as you can see from the left side of Figure 7-6. From this main menu, you can access all the different features this program has to...

Image Processing

The third Shrek movie involves vastly more complex image processing compared to the first two. Next month, we explore the details of how DreamWorks Animation put Linux through 20 million CPU render hours to produce this amazing work of art. Want to switch to Linux but can't do it without Adobe Photoshop Our interview with Pavel Kanzelberger, the creator of the Photoshop Linux work-alike, Pixel, is a must read for you.

Welcome to Picasa

Open Picasa by clicking the Applications menu, selecting the Graphics group and then the Picasa listing. Click Picasa in the fly-out menu, as shown in Figure 8-3. Figure 8-3. The Picasa application can be found in the Graphics application category. Figure 8-3. The Picasa application can be found in the Graphics application category. You might have noticed that installing Ubuntu also installs an application called GIMP Image Editor in the Graphics group (refer to Figure 8-3). Why would you want to download, install, and use Picasa instead of the built-in GIMP Well, one of the main reasons why I recommend Picasa is its simplicity (and the fact that it's free). GIMP is an amazing application, and all the things you can do with Picasa (cropping, removing red-eye, and more) can be done with GIMP, but not as easily (in my opinion). Entire books have been written on using GIMP. (For me, Apress publishes the best book on the subject Beginning GIMP, 2nd Edition, by Akkana Peck.) It's one of...

Getting Picasa

Picasa does not come preinstalled with the Ubuntu operating system. You'll need to go and download the installation file. Trust me this is one of the easiest applications to download and install. How easy Three steps 1. Open the Firefox web browser and visit http www.picasa.com. Click the Download Picasa 3 for Linux (beta) button, as shown in Figure 8-1. Figure 8-1. Picasa can be downloaded from Google for free. Figure 8-1. Picasa can be downloaded from Google for free. Note As I write this chapter, Picasa version 3 is still in beta this might have changed by the time you read this. Version 2.7 does not run well on Ubuntu 8.10, the version of Ubuntu used in this book. Figure 8-2. Download the .deb file that will let you install Picasa on Ubuntu. Figure 8-2. Download the .deb file that will let you install Picasa on Ubuntu. 3. Locate the Picasa installation file that was downloaded and double-click it. A Package Installer window will open click the Install Package button in the...

The Benefits of Linux

The software is also released under a license that means you can share it with anybody you want. Suppose that you find a really great image editor. You mention it to a friend, and he asks for a copy. Under Windows, copying the program is strictly illegal to do so turns you into a software pirate Unless that image editor is freeware, your friend will need to buy the software himself. Under Linux, sharing software is normally entirely legal. In fact, it's encouraged We'll explain why in Chapter 2.

Permanently changing boot options

NOTE You can replace the splash screen with any image you like, provided that it meets certain specifications. Using GIMP or other image editor, save the image to 640x480 pixels, 14 colors, and xpm format. Next, use gzip to compress the file. Then copy that file to the boot grub directory. The last step is to edit the grub.conf file to have the splashimage value point to the new file.

What Else Is Included

Besides Linux itself and the KDE desktop, you'll find many other programs included with your Linux operating system. KDE alone includes over 100 programs, such as image viewers, text editors, email programs, web browsers, and games. You'll even find a free office software suite (OpenOffice) and a Photoshop-like program (The GIMP), both of which are discussed in this book. OpenOffice and The GIMP are generally considered to be the leading free applications in their respective fields. For this reason we have given each one a separate chapter.

Manipulating images with The GIMP

The GIMP is a free software program for manipulating photographs and graphical images. To create images with GIMP, you can either import a drawing, photograph, or 3D image, or you can create one from scratch. You can start GIMP from the system menu by selecting Graphics C GIMP Image Editor or by typing gimp& from a Terminal window. In many ways, GIMP is similar to Adobe Photoshop. Some people feel that GIMP's scripting features are comparable to or even better than Actions in Adobe Photoshop. One capability that GIMP lacks, however, is native support for CMYK (cyan-magenta-yellow-black) separations. If CMYK is not critical for your graphics needs, you will probably find GIMP to be just as powerful and flexible as Photoshop in many ways.

The Site Point Newsletters

The SitePoint Tech Times covers the latest news, product releases, trends, tips, and techniques for all technical aspects of Web development. The long-running SitePoint Tribune is a biweekly digest of the business and money making aspects of the Web. Whether you're a freelance developer looking for tips to score that dream contract, or a marketing major striving to keep abreast of changes to the major search engines, this is the newsletter for you. The SitePoint Design View is a monthly compilation of the best in Web design. From new CSS layout methods to subtle PhotoShop techniques, SitePoint's chief designer shares his years of experience in its pages.

Creating Vector Graphic Images with Inkscape

When you need to have maximum flexibility working with graphics and text, a vector graphic editor can let you deal with geometric elements (such as lines, curves, and boxes) instead of dots (as you do with image editors). As a result, you usually get cleaner edges on your fonts and graphics and the

Business Applications

Some versions of Microsoft Office contain an email and calender program (Outlook) and a database (Access). Both of these applications are covered in other chapters. Financial programs such as Intuit's Quicken and Microsoft Money are also essential business programs. Graphics programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, and Microsoft Visio round out the list of business programs.

Multimedia Applications

The twenty-first century has become the century of the digital lifestyle, with millions of computer users around the world embracing new technologies, such as digital cameras, MP3 players, and other assorted multimedia gadgets. Whereas 10 years ago you might have had a collection of WAV files littering your Windows installation, nowadays you are more likely to have hundreds, if not thousands of MP3 files scattered across various computers. Along with video clips, animations, and other graphics, the demand for organizing and maintaining these vast libraries is driving development of applications. Popular proprietary applications such as iTunes and Google's Picasa are coveted by Linux users, but open source applications are starting to appear that provide real alternatives, and for some the final reasons they need to move to Linux full time.

The GNU Image Manipulation Program

One of the best graphics clients available is The GIMP. The GIMP is a free, GPLed image editor with sophisticated capabilities that can import and export more than 30 different graphics formats, including files created with Adobe Photoshop. It is often compared with Photoshop, and The GIMP represents one of the GNU Projects' first significant successes. Many images in Linux were prepared with The GIMP.

Free Software Defined

Have you taken a look at the prices of software these days Productivity applications (such as Microsoft Office) can easily exceed 300.00, and the most popular photo editing and graphic design applications are pushing 500.00 and higher And what about the personal finance software that's supposed to help you monitor your bank account and get control of your spending You'll be forking out 70.00 or more for those types of applications.

Changing the Root Window Parameters

By default, the root window background is painted gray with a weaved pattern. To draw these patterns, X tiles the root window with a bitmap, which is a black-and-white image stored in a special file format. X comes with some bitmaps installed in the usr X11R6 include bitmaps ' directory the default bitmap file is root_weave' (you can make your own patterns with the bitmap tool see Interactive Image Editors and Tools).

Manipulating images with GIMP

Digital photo editing has improved with built-in red-eye removal, full-screen editing, and new cropping and printing tools. In many ways, GIMP is similar to Adobe Photoshop. Some people feel that GIMP's scripting features are comparable to, or even better than, Actions in Adobe Photoshop. One capability in which GIMP has been behind Photoshop has been in the area of color management. With the latest features of GIMP, however, you can calibrate screens and work with color profiles from your cameras and scanners

Finding Packages with APT

Now that a new repository is set up, you can query for new software you can add apt-cache search picasa picasa - Picasa is software that helps you instantly find, edit and share all the pictures on your PC. You can also ask APT to show info about this Picasa package apt-cache show picasa Package picasa Version 2.2.2820-5 Just how much extra software will Picasa require to be updated Check for dependencies with the following apt-cache depends picasa picasa

Interconnect Technologies

To run require specific properties, such as low latency, which are not provided by Fast Ethernet, then it is likely worth the additional cost. For example, real-time image processing, parallel video streaming, and real-time transaction processing all require low latencies and do not work well with Fast Ethernet. We will briefly discuss the most common networking technologies used by Beowulf systems. Not enough data has been collected on application performance in systems using these technologies for us to comment on when each should be used.

Window System Graphic Programs

X Window System-based applications run directly on the underlying X Window System, which supports the more complex desktops like GNOME and KDE. These applications tend to be simpler, lacking the desktop functionality found in GNOME or KDE applications. Xpaint is a paint program, much like MacPaint. You can load graphics or photographs, and then create shapes, add text, and add colors. You can use brush tools with various sizes and colors. Xfig is a drawing program, and Xmorph enables you to morph images, changing their shapes. ImageMagick lets you convert images from one format to another you can, for instance, change a TIFF image to a JPEG image. Table 12-2 lists some popular graphics tools for Linux. Image processing tool that uses the Fourier transform Image editor (www.koffice.org krita) ImageMagick

General Mouse Settings

Sensitivity This setting controls how quickly the acceleration kicks in when you first move the mouse. Choosing a higher setting means that you can move the mouse relatively quickly before it starts to accelerate and cover more screen space. A low setting means that acceleration will begin almost as soon as you move the mouse. Higher sensitivity settings give you more control over the mouse, which can be useful if you use image-editing programs, for example.

Searching the APT database

The main use of apt-file is to determine which package provides a certain file. For instance, if someone told you to use the usr bin convert tool to reformat a picture file, you could use apt-file to figure out that the imagemagick package is what you need to install apt-file search usr bin convert imagemagick usr bin convert

Quick Start with Common Linux Programs

The remainder of this chapter outlines a handful of the programs listed in Table 11-1. Our goal is to give you a head start in using each program, pointing out where most of the main functions can be found. You'll find more details about the The GIMP image editor, multimedia tools, and office applications in Parts 5 and 6 of this book.

Checking Print Utilities

The ImageMagick package, described in Chapter 9, deserves special mention. It lets you display a large number of graphics formats in an X window and convert many file formats to other file formats. (It uses Ghostview and Ghostscript when it needs to display a PostScript image.) Most of the graphics files you can print you can also display using ImageMagick.

Photo Management Tools FSpot and digiKam

The F-Spot photo manager (http f-spot.org) provides a simple and powerful way to manage, display, and import your photos and images (see Figure 14-1). Photos can be organized by different categories such as events, people, and places. You can perform standard display operations such as rotation or full-screen viewing, along with slide shows. Image editing support is provided. Selected photos can be directly burned to a CD (using Nautilus burning capabilities). Features include a simple and easy-to-use interface. A timeline feature lets you see photos as they were taken. You can also display photos in full-screen mode or as slide shows. F-Spot includes a photo editor that provides basic adjustments and changes such as rotation, red-eye correction, and standard color settings including temperature and saturation. You can tag photos and place them in groups, making them easier to access. With a tag, you can label a collection of photos, then use the tag to access them instantly. The tag...

Working with Your Digital Camera

The next two sections discuss the primary applications that Ubuntu and Kubuntu provide for working with your digital camera, namely F-Spot and DigiKam. These applications were introduced in the Photo Editing Overview section of Chapter 18 (which also lists some alternate digital camera-related applications that are available for Ubuntu and Kubuntu), but the following sections focus on F-Spot and DigiKam in detail.

Editing Images with the GIMP

The GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is an all-encompassing image-editing and manipulation program that lets you paint, draw, create, and edit images in complex ways. Using gimp you can also convert image files, retouch and edit photographic images, and browse collections of images.

Windows Compatibility and Samba

You may also need to run Windows in order to use standard applications, such as Photoshop or Microsoft Office. In both of these cases, there are free, Open Source applications (namely, The Gimp, KOffice and OpenOffice) that can match or even outdo their proprietary, closed-source equivalents. However, it is still sometimes necessary to run Windows to obtain access to software products that have no Linux equivalent, or for which the Linux counterpart is not fully compatible.

Getting Pictures onto Your PC

Before you can undertake any image editing, you need to transfer your images to your PC. Depending on the source of the pictures, there are a variety of ways of doing this. We have already looked at transferring images to your PC in Chapter 8, but let's briefly recap the procedure here.

Adding Tags for Faster Searching

If you have hundreds or even thousands of digital photos stored on your hard drive, it can take quite some time to locate a specific photo. Even if you've titled your photos (such as birthday154.jpg), you still have to open them to see exactly who or what they display, or scan through thumbnails of all your photos looking (squinting, actually) for that one specific photo. It's a hassle, but Picasa offers a much better method. Notice that I included the month and year, the location (Florida), and, in this case, an age (21 months). Let's say I have a few thousand photos on my hard drive and I'm looking for all the photos that were taken in Florida. With Picasa, all I need to do is type the word florida on the search bar, as shown in Figure 8-17, and any photos that contain that tag (keyword) show up. You can enter multiple tags separated by a space or comma, and Picasa shows all photos with tags that match one or more of the tags.

Purchasing Photos Online

One of the nicest features of Picasa is how easily the application makes purchasing prints of your photos. You first create a virtual album by selecting a photo that you want to purchase and then click the green pin button, as indicated in Figure 8-21. The pin keeps the selected photos in the Album section until you're done picking all the photos you want to order. (Click the red circle below the green pin to deselect all photos.) After you select all the photos you want to purchase, click the Shop button on the Picasa toolbar. A window opens (see Figure 8-22). You'll see a listing of companies that offer to print your photos for you at a price much lower than you'll find at a local photo kiosk or developer. Click the Choose button for a few (or all) of the companies and compare their prices pick the one that works best for you and follow the onscreen instructions for submitting your photos via Picasa. The photos will be printed, boxed, and shipped to you. How easy is that Backto...

Questions and Answers

A Because UNIX and Linux systems might be used for a variety of graphics and image processing tasks, you'll find that Linux graphics programs often include support for a diverse set of formats, such as Macintosh, Windows, SGI, Sun, and professional printing or design (CAD) formats. Several additional formats (such as xpm) are used by the X Window System for icons or internal storage of images.

Viewing Your Images with gThumb

The images that appeared in Figure 14-3 are being displayed by an application called gThumb. As you can see, gThumb is an image viewer, but it can actually do a lot more. Although not as elegant in appearance as Apple's iPhoto, gThumb can actually perform many of the same functions, and it can even perform some functions that iPhoto can't. If you don't happen to

Saving Photos to CD in gThumb

One of gThumb's very iPhoto-ish features is its ability to burn images to CD. To use this feature, select the images you want to save to CD (in Folder view just click the Folders button to get there), and then select Write to CD in the File menu. After that, you will be asked in a separate window whether you want to save the whole shebang to disk or just those items you selected. Make your choice, and then click OK. A Nautilus CD DVD Creator window will then appear showing the items you've selected. After that, it is all the same process as described in Chapter 6, so it is pretty much smooth sailing.

Coming from Windows

The Mandriva Linux 2009 Powerpack is the product that Mandriva recommends for beginners who are looking to switch to Linux from Windows. By adding commercial software for watching DVD movies (LinDVD), Windows gaming (Transgaming's Cedega), Google Picasa, and 3D desktop effects (drak3D), Mandriva makes transitioning from Windows to Linux a fairly easy proposition.

Scripting for the Desktop

This chapter introduces scripting for the desktop, or common user applications and the desktop environment. It describes how to script such tasks as playing music, controlling word processors, and the like. Special focus is given to Mac OS X and its unique Apple Open Scripting Architecture, or OSA, that enables the shell environment to interact with applications such as Photoshop or Microsoft Word. While you can do a lot with just the operating system, at some point you're going to want to start gluing various applications together. If you think about it, that's what shell scripting is gluing applications together. However, it's not limited to things such as sed, awk, and other traditional Unix applications. You can even glue design applications and music applications together with scripting, shell and otherwise.

Creating and Modifying Graphics

The GIMP is a graphics program that's considered in many ways equivalent to Adobe Photoshop. Many don't consider The GIMP the friendliest program on the planet, but at the very least, it has enough features to keep you busy experimenting for weeks To open The GIMP I Fedora Choose ApplicationsOGraphicsOGIMP Image Editor. I Knoppix From the main menu, choose GraphicsOGIMP Image Editor. I SuSE From the main menu, choose GraphicsOImage Editing. I Xandros Choose LaunchOApplicationsOGraphicsOGIMP Image Editor.

Desktop Environments and Window Managers

Both GNOME and KDr should look familiar to Windows and Macintosh users they feature a desktop background with icons for files and folders, a bar with buttons and a clock at the top or bottom of the screen, and a central menu to access everything from applications to system settings. Both have more settings available th an either Windows or the Macintosh OS, including support for virtual desktops, customizable key bindings, and window focus behavior. They also include or share a series of applications office suites for word processing, spreadsheets, and presentations groupware tools for email, calendar, and address-book management and image processing, web, and software development tools for artists, programmers, and Cystem lgministretors.

Manipulating floating point unit registers

Later models of the i386 architecture have more FPU registers than do earlier ones. The streaming SIMD extensions were introduced with the Pentium III. They are of use in areas such as image processing and word recognition. SSE uses 128-bit registers, called XMM registers. There is also an MXCSR register, containing control and status bits for operating the XMM registers.

Install Google applications

As with Windows and Macintosh, Google has released a series of downloadable applications for Linux Google Earth, Picasa and Google Desktop. Google Earth allows you to spin around the globe looking at satellite photographs and planning routes between locations. Picasa lets you catalog and tweak photographs on your hard disk and then upload them to online photo albums provided as part of your Google account. Google Desktop lets you organize and search your files, as well as quickly search your Gmail account (rather like Tracker, the built-in Ubuntu search tool, as discussed in Tip 77, on page 134, although Tracker will not search your Gmail unless it's been downloaded using Both Google Desktop and Picasa can be downloaded by adding Google's APT repository to your system. However, for reasons best known to Google's engineers, Google Earth can't be installed this way and must be installed manually. The following instructions explain how to add the Google APT repository, install Google...

Sharpen images at the command line

Previous Page Command

If you followed Tip 154, on page 197, and Tip 11, on page 72, you'll already have come into contact with Imagemagick. This command-line program can do just about anything to images and you can learn more about it by viewing its man page (man imagemagick) or viewing its website Imagemagick can also be used to process lots of images at once (known as batch processing), although in that case the mogrify command must be used instead of the convert command. For example, to sharpen all the images in the current folder, type mogrify -sharpen 0x1 *

Graphicsrelated commands

(in X terminal) Powerful photo editor and camera image acquisition program. kpaint (in X terminal) Display a picture for viewing only. You can also type display & and select file from the menu to view the image, rotate it , change its colour, apply certain effects, etc. display is part of ImageMagick package, together with several other utilities described below.

Converting Images between Formats

sf Debian imagemagick' sf WWW This command writes its output to a file pike.jpeg'. Notice that the options -border' and -comment' were previously described for the mogrify' tool. Some ImageMagick tools share common options, which is useful if you are making multiple changes to an image file at once only one tool is needed for the job.

Installing Packages with APT

You can now install, using sudo, any available software authored by Google for Ubuntu, using APT or another package tool. This shows Picasa being installed using APT sudo apt-get install picasa Reading package lists Done Building dependency tree Reading state information Done The following NEW packages will be installed picasa Get 1 http dl.google.com stable non-free picasa 2.2.2820-5 21.7MB Selecting previously deselected package picasa. (Reading database 88015 files and directories currently installed.) Unpacking picasa (from picasa_2.2.2820-5_i386.deb) Setting up picasa (2.2.2820-5) You can now run the Picasa program by typing picasa on the command line, or selecting it from the Applications O Graphics menu on the Ubuntu desktop.

Installing a Web Application Coppermine Photo Gallery

Install the unzip and imagemagick programs. Unzip is used to unpack the CPG program after downloading, and imagemagick is used to resize images and create thumbnails apt-get install unzip imagemagick ImageMagick path The directory containing the imagemagick binary. On Debian systems, this is usr bin.

The Ubuntu Linux GUI Tool

Ubuntu Linux Interface

The options in the New Printer window display detected devices, as well as standard options for CUPS connections to network printers. The Gutenprint options are associated with The GIMP, which is the functional Linux equivalent to Paint Shop Pro. The standard LPT 1 option shown in the figure assumes a connection through the first parallel port, associated with dev lp0. Other options as shown in Table 7-5 should be familiar from your reading of the other Ubuntu Linux GUI print managers.

Running Microsoft Office on Linux Cross Over and Wine

Though effective, Wine support is as stable as that of CrossOver Office. CrossOver Office is a commercial product that lets you install and run most MS Office applications. CrossOver Office was developed by CodeWeavers, which also supports Windows Web browser plug-ins as well as several popular Windows applications such as Adobe Photoshop. CrossOver features both standard and professional versions, providing reliable application support. You can find out more about CrossOver Office at www.codeweavers.com. When you install new software, you first open the CrossOver startup tool, and then on the Add Remove panel you will see a list of supported software. This will include Office applications as well as some Adobe applications, including earlier versions of Photoshop. From an Install Software panel, you can select whether to install from a CD-ROM or an .exe file. For Office on a CD-ROM, select CD-ROM, place the Windows CD-ROM in your CD drive, and then click Next. The Windows Office...

Running Microsoft Office on Linux Crossover

CrossOver Office also lets you install and run most Microsoft Office applications. CrossOver Office was developed by CodeWeavers, which also supports Windows Web browser plug-ins as well as several popular Windows applications like Adobe Photoshop. CrossOver features both standard and professional versions, providing reliable application support. You can find out more about CrossOver Office at www.codeweavers.com. CrossOver can be installed either for private multiuser mode or managed multiuser mode. In private multiuser mode, each user installs his or her own Windows software, such as full versions of Office. In managed multiuser mode, the Windows software is installed once and all users share it. When you install new software, you first open the CrossOver startup tool, and then on the Add Remove panel you will see a list of supported software. This will include Office applications as well as some Adobe applications, including earlier versions of Photoshop. An Install Software panel...

Running Windows Software on Linux Wine

Wine is a Windows compatibility layer that allows you to run many Windows applications natively on Linux. Though you could run the Windows OS on Wine, the actual Windows OS is not required. Windows applications will run as if they were Linux applications, able to access the entire Linux file system and use Linux-connected devices. Applications that are heavily driver-dependent, such as graphics-intensive games, may not run. Others that do not rely on any specialized drivers may run very well, including Photoshop, Microsoft Office, and newsreaders such as NewsBin. For some applications, you may also need to copy over specific Windows dynamic link libraries (DLLs) from a working Windows system to your Wine Windows system32 or system directory.

Working with Digital Cameras on Kubuntu Systems

DigiKam is the most popular application for working with digital photographs on a Kubuntu system, though other applications are available, most notably KPhotoAlbum (http kphotoalbum.org). DigiKam makes it easy to import photos from a digital camera or other storage device, and provides a number of convenient plug-ins for common photo editing and touchup tasks.

Getting Arty with the GIMP

The Windows and Mac worlds may have Photoshop, but the Linux world has the GIMP. While arguably not as powerful as Photoshop, the GIMP is a capable contender, which may explain why it has been ported over to both Mac and Windows. The GIMP allows you to create bitmap graphics and, quite importantly, retouch or completely doctor image files. With the GIMP you can get rid of red-eye in your digital photos, airbrush out unwanted shadows (or even facial blemishes), give your image a canvas texture, change a photo into an oil painting, and even add a bell pepper here and there and with drop shadows no less (see Figure 14-11). To run the GIMP, go to the Applications menu, and select Graphics GIMP Image Editor.

Other File Attributes

Programs to open the file swirl2.png, with Image Viewer being the default choice. Now the Image Viewer is well and good if you mostly just want to browse your image files. But, for example, if you generally need to edit them, you might prefer to make the GIMP Image Editor the default application for PNG files by clicking the circle next to that program's icon.

Using the FSpot Editor

Not only can F-Spot organize your photos, but it also provides an image editor with some advanced features to help you clean up your photos. After importing an image, you can use the image editor to apply various effects. Follow these steps to work with an image 6. Edit the image using the Edit buttons in the bottom area. The image editing tools that F-Spot offers are

Figure 28 Evolution Email Client

Image Editing and Picture Management With the Picture Gallery application of Microsoft Vista, you can upload thousands of images and add tags. You can also organise the images quickly and work on them easily because you can tag them with one click. F-Spot photo manager organises your personal photos on Ubuntu. It integrates seamlessly with popular Web based image databases, such as Flickr and Picasa Web. Ubuntu provides Gimp for image editing which is a powerful Photoshop-like application. Microsoft Windows Vista provides 'Paint' for basic image editing.

The Applications Menu

The Applications menu (see Figure 4-7) contains the main programs and accessories you use. This includes things such as Calculator, CD DVD Creator, and Terminal under the Accessories subheading over a dozen games under Games the GIMP image editor and F-Spot Photo Manager under Graphics the Firefox web browser and Empathy instant messenger (IM) program under Internet Dictionary and the OpenOffice.org applications under Office and Sound Recorder, Brasero Disc Burner, and Movie Player under Sound & Video. The Ubuntu Software Center (see Chapter 8) can also be accessed from here. This is where you can easily install and uninstall new software.

Shrink or enlarge images at the command line

GIMP can do just about anything to an image but it can be time-consuming to fire it up just to resize an image. For ultra-quick manipulation, consider Imagemagick, a command-line image manipulation program. It doesn't come installed by default and you'll need to install it via Synap-tic (search for and install imagemagick). Once installed, the convert command should be used with the addition of the -resize command option. For example, the following will shrink filename.bmp to half its original size

The Cambridge Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

In both 2007 and 2008, CAUV was the smallest robot at the competition, weighing in at less than 7kg. We use one of the world's smallest full-featured x86 motherboards to power the Ubuntu 8.10 operating system. Although the PICO board is small in size, it still is able to pack a punch with a 1GHz VIA C7 processor and 1GB of RAM, all of which is utilized by the onboard autonomy and image-processing software. Soon we would like to upgrade the processor to a Mobile ITX and possibly fit two boards in for some dual-processing fun. Three modules make up the software the decision-making software, the image-processing software and the navigation software. In 2008, we wrote all the software in Java, excluding the navigation software, as this is based on the dsPICs. For the 2009 software, we are porting our Java prototype to C++ and incorporating the OpenCV image-processing library to replace our custom image-processing system. The software modules are implemented separately and communicate via...

Linux and Your Digital Camera

A digital camera combined with your personal computer is a powerful tool to create, store, edit, print, and share images. You can take your pictures, store them initially on the camera's disk or memory card, and then transfer them to your PC with the camera's USB cable. View or edit the file with your favorite image editor, then email photos to friends and family, post them on your photo blog, or preserve the images on a recordable CD. No fuss, no muss, no film. KDE fans can use the digiKam tool to handle similar tasks. It also is a KDE-based front end to gphoto, but includes an image editor as well. DigiKam will attempt to autodetect your camera, or you can add it manually. You can create photo albums for specific events.

Open Source Office Suites

The heart of Gnome Office is the spreadsheet, Gnumeric. This is a Gnome project designed to create a full-featured GPL spreadsheet. One of its goals is to clone the look and features of Microsoft Excel. AbiWord is Gnome's word processor. It doesn't have all the features of many of the other word processors, but it is very fast and has a clean interface. Gnu Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) was one of the first open source desktop applications available for Linux. GIMP is a photo and image retouching program similar to Adobe Photoshop. While its interface isn't quite as polished as Photoshop, GIMP is every bit as powerful. Dia is a drawing program similar to Visio. Dia is is quickly becoming the tool of choice for Gnome developers to do diagrams and flowcharts. Eye of Gnome (EOG) is a quick image viewer. It was designed to allow developers to quickly view image files without having to open them in a larger application like GIMP. Gnome-PIM provides the calendar and address book that is...

Make Windows permanently available

Choose a picture and then load it into the GIMP (right-click and select Open With Open with GIMP Image Editor ) you might like to know that the default Ubuntu desktop wallpapers are stored in usr share backgrounds. You should select a picture that's roughly in 4 3 ratio, such as a digital camera snap. Don't select very tall or broad images they won't work.

Click the thumbnails to select the images you want to download then choose DownloadODownload Selected to download the

Digikam then downloads the images to an album (you have to select an existing album or create a new one). You can view the photos in Digikam and edit the photos in The GIMP or your favorite photo editor. Digikam also includes an image editor. If you double-click a thumbnail in the photo album, Digikam opens that photo in the Digikam Image Editor, as shown in Figure 15-4. In the Digikam Image Editor, you can perform some limited image-editing tasks such as rotating images or converting them to black and white or sepia. You can touch up photos in the Digikam Image Editor. You can touch up photos in the Digikam Image Editor.

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XPaint is an X Window System color image editing program which supports most standard paint program options. XPaint also supports advanced features like image processing algorithms. XPaint allows you to edit multiple images simultaneously and supports a variety of image formats, including PPM, XBM, TIFF, JPEG, etc.

Running Microsoft Office in Linux with Cross Over Office

You simply install CrossOver Office and then install Microsoft Office from the Microsoft Office CD-ROM (CrossOver Office enables you to install many more Windows applications, including Internet Explorer, Outlook, Lotus Notes, Adobe Photoshop, Quicken, and iTunes). After you install Microsoft Office, the Office applications will be available directly from GNOME or KDE desktop.

Create Graphics with the GIMP

The GNU Image Manipulation Package, affectionately known as the GIMP to its friends, is a powerful graphics package. The GIMP provides a comprehensive range of functionality for creating different types of graphics. It includes tools for selections, drawing, creating paths, masks, filters, effects, and more. It also includes a range of templates for different types of media such as Web banners, different paper sizes, video frames, CD covers, floppy disk labels, and even toilet paper. Yes, toilet paper. You can load the GIMP by clicking Applications Graphics GIMP Image Editor. Unlike Adobe Photoshop, the GIMP does not place all of its windows inside a single large window, and instead has a number of separate child windows. This can be a little confusing at first for new users. To get you started, let us run through a simple session in the GIMP. Start the GIMP by clicking Applications Graphics GIMP Image Editor.

Importing Photos Using FSpot

F-Spot is styled after image-cataloging programs you might have used under Windows or Macintosh, such as iPhoto or Picasa. Once you run F-Spot (Applications Graphics F-Spot Photo Manager), or after you click the Open F-Spot Photo Manager button that appears along the top of a Nautilus file browser window when you insert a memory card or attach your digital camera, the F-Spot Import window will appear. (Depending on your configuration, the Import window may appear within a file browser.)

Convert images from one format to another at the commandline

Although you can fire-up the GIMP to convert an image from one format to another, it's something of a sledgehammer to crack a nut, and time-consuming too. An easier way is to use the Imagemagick software. You'll need to use Synaptic to install it first, however (search for and install the imagemagick package). Once installed, simply use the convert command. The command is intelligent enough to work out what you're trying to do from the filenames you give it. For example, the following will use Imagemagick to convert filename.jpg into a bitmap file

Proprietary File Formats

Many other programs outside the Linux world use proprietary formats. Office suites other than Microsoft Office, desktop publishing programs, tax-preparation software, advanced graphics tools such as Adobe Photoshop, and more all use proprietary formats. Some also support cross-platform formats, and as a general rule, if you want to exchange data files created with these programs, you should store them in a cross-platform format. In a few cases, you may be able to import the native file format using a Linux program, or even run a Linux version of the program.

Taxonomy of Parallel Computing

Systolic computers are usually special-purpose hardwired implementations of finegrained parallel algorithms exploiting one-, two-, or three-dimensional pipelining. Often used for real-time postsensor processors, digital signal processing, image processing, and graphics generation, systolic computing is experiencing a revival through adaptive computing, exploiting the versatile FPGA (field programmable

Taking a Screen Shot in X

sf Debian imagemagick' sf WWW Use import, part of the ImageMagick suite, to take a screen shot in X. import can capture the entire screen, a single window, or an arbitrary rectangular area, taking as an argument the name of the file to save to. As with other ImageMagick tools, the image format of the output file depends on the file extension you specify .eps' for EPS, .tiff' for TIFF, .jpeg' for JPEG, and so on. (For a complete list, see Converting Images between Formats).

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The GIMP is an image manipulation program suitable for photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. Many people find it extremely useful in creating logos and other graphics for web pages. The GIMP has many of the tools and filters you would expect to find in similar commercial offerings, and some interesting extras as well.

Editing the Image File

Now let's open our saved image file and play around with GIMP's image-editing features. 1. Select File O Open and select the image file you saved from your screenshot. GIMP opens the file in an image-editing window, as shown in Figure 10-8. Figure 10-8 The GIMP Image Editing window. Figure 10-8 The GIMP Image Editing window. These steps demonstrate the basic image-editing capabilities of GIMP. If you're familiar with basic image-editing tools like Microsoft Paintbrush, you're probably happy with these results. However, if you're used to more advanced image-editing tools, you're probably not all that impressed yet. Fortunately, there are still more features in GIMP we can play with. GIMP includes a set of prebuilt filters that can apply special effects to your image. 1. If you've closed your image file, open it using File O Open so it's in a new image-editing window.

Volkan Erol

Volkan Erol is a researcher at the Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology (TUBITAK-NRIEC). After receiving his bachelor of science degree in computer engineering from Galatasaray University Engineering and Technology Faculty, Volkan continued his studies in the Computer Science, Master of Science program, at Istanbul Technical University. He worked as software engineer at the Turkcell Shubuo-Turtle project and has participated in TUBITAK-NRIEC since November 2005. He works as a full-time researcher in the Open Trusted Computing project. His research areas are Trusted Computing, applied cryptography, software development, and design and image processing.

About This Book

SUSE Linux 10 For Dummies is a beginner's guide for the upcoming SUSE Linux distribution. The approach to the subject matter and the writing style is that of the successful For Dummies series. The focus is on introducing you to the SUSE Linux desktop with all the GUI tools, including the office productivity suite (OpenOffice.org) and multimedia applications (audio player, digital camera, CD burning, image editing, and so on). I include a chapter on connecting to the Internet using cable DSL modems and setting up a basic home network because these have become necessities for anyone who has more

Ubuntu in Your Home

If you have a digital camera, run the gThumb or F-Spot clients to download, organize, and manage your digital images. You can then fine-tune your pictures by editing them using one of the finest digital image editors in the world the GIMP. See Chapter 11, Image Manipulation and Digital Photography, for information about editing graphics.


Multimedia and graphics programs ImageMagick (an image-processing package), gimp (an image-editing package), mpeg_play (plays MPEG animations under X or on the Linux console), pixmap (a pixmap xpm editor), xpcd (a PhotoCD viewer), and xpdf (a viewer for PDF files, also known as

What Ubuntu offers

Want to browse the web Firefox will do the job. This is the same Firefox you might have been using under Windows and, yes, the same add-ons will work. Want to instant-message friends using AIM, MSN, or ICQ Pidgin provides the solution. Need to do some word-processing, or spreadsheeting, or presenting OpenOffice.org will do the trick. GIMP will handle image-editing, while RhythmBox will take care of music playback (stand-alone video playback is handled by Totem).

Puppy Linux

Puppy Linux (www.goosee.com puppy) is a live CD distribution of Linux. It is relatively new but worth mentioning here because of the incredible amount of work that goes into it and its general excellence. A complete Puppy Linux CD image runs around 60MB, can be booted from CD or installed into bootable USB flash memory devices or permanently on systems. It is compact but also provides a generous amount of well-thought-out, well-integrated Linux software. Puppy comes complete with a graphical user interface, popular graphical tools for word processing (AbiWord), image editing (GIMP), instant messaging, CD and DVD playing, and much more.

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The gtk+ package contains the GIMP ToolKit (GTK+), a library for creating graphical user interfaces for the X Window System. GTK+ was originally written for the GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) image processing program, but is now used by several other programs as well.

Whats the Answer

But there is a lot of competition for other things I use my computer to do word processing and photo editing, for example. I don't have 400.00 to drop on the most popular photo editing software, but I've found that Picasa (see Chapter 8) not only provides what I need in a photo editing app but many people (including me) also believe that it's better than the pay-to-use, big name software

Office Applications

Currently, KOffice includes KSpread, KPresenter, KWord, Karbon14, KFormula, KChart, Kugar, Krita, and Kivio (see Table 11-3). The contact application, Kontact, has been spun off as a separate project. Kontact is an integrated contact application including Kmail, Korganizer, Kaddressbook, and Knotes. KSpread is a spreadsheet, KPresenter is a presentation application, Karbon14 is a vector graphics program, KWord is a Publisher-like word processor, KFormula is a formula editor, and KChart generates charts and diagrams. Kugar is a report generator, Krita is a bitmap image editor, and Kivio creates flow charts. Kexi provides database integration with KOffice applications, currently supporting PostgreSQL and MySQL.

Using the GIMP

The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is the premiere bitmap graphics program for Linux. It's very close to Adobe Photoshop in power, although of course the two programs have different strengths and weaknesses. The GIMP supports only the red green blue (RGB) color encoding used by monitors, whereas Photoshop also supports the cyan magenta yellow black (CMYK) color encoding system used by printers. On the other hand, the GIMP supports a powerful scripting tool, Script-Fu, to help automate complex transformations.

KDE Graphics Tools

KView is a simple image viewer for GIF and JPEG image files. The KSnapshot program is a simple screen grabber for KDE, which currently supports only a few image formats. KFourier is an image-processing tool that uses the Fourier transform to apply several filters to an image at once. KuickShow is an easy-to-use, comfortable image browser and viewer supporting slide shows and numerous image formats, based on imlib. KolourPaint is a simple paint program with brushes, shapes, and color effects it supports numerous image formats. Krita is the KOffice professional image paint and editing application, with a wide range of features, such as creating Web images and modifying photographs (formerly known as Krayon and KImageShop).

GNOME Graphics Tools

GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program, a sophisticated image application much like Adobe Photoshop. You can use GIMP for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring. It supports features such as layers, channels, blends, and gradients. GIMP makes particular use of the GTK+ widget set. You can find out more about GIMP and download the newest versions from its Web site at www.gimp.org. GIMP is freely distributed under the GNU Public License.

Dave Taylor

There are some terrific image manipulation packages available in Linux, most notably ImageMagick, but we don't need anything that fancy because the pedestrian, old, undersung file command can do the job for us. I'm going to be looking at only PNG (progressive network graphic) files, as those are very much the best for most Web uses, but it's worth noting that many Linux file commands have a harder time calculating image dimensions for JPEG images. Here's an example


Eye of GNOME Image Viewer GIMP Image Editor F-Spot Photo Manager In this visual world, handling images is almost a daily task. From working with images exported from digital cameras to modifying graphics for a new web site, software for creating and manipulating images is vital to any desktop environment. Ubuntu provides an excellent set of software packages for creating and handling images. This chapter dives into those three packages. The Eye of GNOME Image Viewer is a behind-the-scenes package that most people don't think about, at least not until they double-click on an image file. The second package covered is GIMP, which stands for GNU Image Manipulation Program. The GIMP application is a full-featured image-editing package. Finally, the chapter walks through the features of the F-Spot Photo Manager, which is more than just a simple way to export images from your digital camera.

Starting GIMP

Start GIMP from the Panel menu by selecting Applications O Graphics O GIMP Image Editor. When you start GIMP for the first time, it opens a user setup wizard. The average user can just click Continue in each dialog box in the wizard for a standard setup. If you're a graphics guru who has a particular reason to change the default settings, you can do so within the setup wizard dialog boxes. The following sections explain how to use GIMP for standard image-editing tasks.

Taking a Screenshot

Open GIMP by choosing Applications O Graphics O GIMP Image Editor. 3. When the screenshot is taken, GIMP opens the image in an image editing window. Select File O Save As to save the image file. GIMP allows you to save the image in most common image formats. All you need to do is place the proper image format extension on the filename (such as .jpg, .tiff, .gif, or .bmp). After you click OK, GIMP may produce another dialog box with options specific to the image file type you saved the image as.

Reuven Mlerner

Some programs have a long tradition of encouraging add-ons. GNU Emacs is best known as a text editor, but it comes with a full-fledged version of the Lisp programming language. You can create just about anything you want in Emacs, and people have done so, including mail-reading programs, Web browsers and an extremely sophisticated calendar diary. Photoshop caught on among graphic designers not only because of its powerful image editing features, but also because of the large number of plugins that were developed (and sold) for the platform. Microsoft Office, much as it might be reviled by many Linux and open-source advocates, became popular because of its built-in programming language (VBA), as much as for its built-in features. And, of course, the Firefox browser wouldn't be half as useful to me if it weren't for the half-dozen plugins that I have added to my software.

Available Software

SUSE Linux includes a number of programs that are used under both GNOME and KDE, such as the OpenOffice.org office suite and The GIMP image editor, but the GNOME and KDE desktops also have their own software for some specific tasks, such as playing back multimedia. Table 11-1 lists various popular Windows programs alongside their SUSE Linux counterparts for the GNOME and KDE desktop environments. All of the programs mentioned in the table are located on SUSE Linux's applications menu. In the case of the GNOME desktop, this is the menu at the bottom of the screen marked Applications in the case of the KDE desktop, this is the green gecko icon at the bottom left (referred to throughout this book as the K menu). The remainder of this chapter outlines a handful of the programs listed in Table 11-1. As I noted at the beginning of this chapter, my goal is to give you a head start in using each program. In many instances, the software introduced in this chapter is covered in far more detail...

Software Packages

Examples of self-contained applications are common programs such as the Firefox web browser, the Evolution email client, and the GIMP image editor. Each of these applications loads as a self-contained package in Ubuntu. You can easily install or remove these applications individually without affecting the operation of your Ubuntu system.

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